Wednesday, 30 March 2016

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James Innes Interview Question Answer Book PDF Free Download

Take the fear out of your interview and never be stuck for the right answer to even the toughest questions with The Interview Question & Answer Book.

The job market is fierce, competition has never been greater and it's important that you can grab every opportunity for competitive advantage and stay one step ahead. Written by one of the world's leading careers experts and bestselling author of The Interview Book, this definitive guide to questions and answers encourages every job-hunter to think on your feet and express your individuality while supplying ideal responses to interview questions so that you’re seen as the ideal candidate for the job.

About Book:
Paperback: 264 pages
Publisher: Pearson; 2 edition (30 Dec. 2015)
Language: English

About Author:
James Innes is the Founder and Chairman of The CV Centre (UK, Ireland, New Zealand and South Africa), The Resume Center (USA), The Resume Centre (Canada and Australia) and CV Center (Germany, Austria, France and Belgium) - the world's leading CV and resume consultancies.

About Free download: 
Here we are not giving FREE PDF, Mobi, Epub because this is against copyright law, But we are giving more than this. So here we will provide free Hard-Copy to your home, Yes 100% Free, what you are thinking, Am I making fool??

Yes!! here we will provide your FREE Hard copy of that book instead of PDF/Epub. To get this book you just need to comment(your email id) here we will select the winner on random days, If you selected then we will reply on your comment and to check are you selected winner you need to revisit this link, so bookmark this link.
if you win the we will ask you for your address then we will order this book at your address... But one thing you need to do after getting book send us a photo of book, We will show it here. So that other people trust on us. Then what you are waiting for, Just comment...
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Tuesday, 29 March 2016

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NDA Exam Result 2016 Held on 17 April 2016

As you know NDA exam 2016 is being scheduled on 17th April 2016 and second exam later this year on 18th Sep 2016 respectively. NDA selection procedure is conducted into two stages, first is written test and second is interview. So here we are informing about NDA 1 2016 SSB interview date.

NDA Exam Result (held on 17th April 2016): Here we will share as the result will announce. So we need to wait for NDA exam fist. Best of luck.. Pray...

You can download NDA SSB Interview Date 2016 PDF
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NDA SSB 2016 Interview Date PDF

NDA exam 2016 is being scheduled on 17th April 2016 and second exam later this year on 18th Sep 2016 respectively. As you know NDA selection procedure is conducted into two stages, first is written test and second is interview. So here we are informing about NDA 1 2016 SSB interview date.

NDA SSB Interview Date 2016: September 2016 to October 2016, it will held after 20 days of NDA 1 written result 2016. So we need to wait for NDA result fist then the exact date will come into existence.

You can download NDA SSB Interview Date 2016 PDF
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Top 22 SQL Server Trigger Interview Question with Answers

Hi SQL developers, here we come with one of the most important topic of SQL Server which is know as Triggers, Here will have almost all Trigger related interview questions, This set contain most FAQ trigger related interview questions.


1). Explain what is a Triggers in SQL Server?
Ans: Click here for answers

2). What are the type of Triggers?
Ans: There are two types of triggers
  • After Triggers (For Triggers)
  • Instead Of Triggers
3). Explain what is after Trigger?
Ans: After Triggers
These triggers run after an insert, update or delete on a table. They are not supported for views.
AFTER TRIGGERS can be classified further into three types as:
  • AFTER INSERT Trigger.
  • AFTER UPDATE Trigger.
  • AFTER DELETE Trigger.
4). What is the maximum depth level for nested triggers? 
Ans: 32 levels

5). What are magic tables in SQL Server?
Ans: Magic tables are nothing but inserted and deleted which are temporary object created by server internally to hold the recently inserted values in the case of insert and to hold recently deleted values in the case of delete, to hold before updating values or after updating values in the case of update.

6). How many types of Magic tables available in SQL server?
Ans: There are two types of Magic tables available in SQL server:

7). Suppose you have a view that is formed by joining two tables together, what database object would allow you to insert a new row into both of the two tables joined together? 
Ans: An INSTEAD OF trigger

8). If a trigger aborts due to a run-time error and no exception handler exists, what will occur? 
Ans: The transaction will be rolled back and control passes to the calling environment.

9). Which T-SQL statement can you include in the code of the trigger to indicate a normal exit from the trigger? 

10). If there is an AFTER INSERT trigger on a table, how many times will that trigger fire if you insert 50 rows using a single INSERT? 
Ans: Trigger will fire once

11). If a DML trigger fires and executes another DML statement also contains a trigger, what will happen to that second trigger, it will fire or not? 
Ans: The second trigger will fire

12). What command explicitly fires a trigger, means can we fire trigger forcefully? 
Ans: None, there is no command, you can't fire trigger fourcefuly. A trigger is implicitly fired when the triggering event occurs.

13). How many triggers are possible per table?
Ans: One InsteadOfTrigger and any After Triggers.

14). You have created a DML trigger that fires when an UPDATE operation is performed. You want to ensure that this DML trigger does not fire in the event that no rows are affected by the UPDATE operation. What you will do to implement same?
Ans: I will use @@ROWCOUNT

15). Is it possible to create trigger on views?
Ans: Yes, you can create only InsteadOf trigger in view.
AFTER trigger allowed only on table.

16). Suppose you need to save/get the count of rows inserted into a table, How you will achieve that?
Ans: I will take the help of trigger and magic table.

17). You are working with some Transact-SQL code that causes an error. You want to determine the name of the trigger or stored procedure that caused a specific error. You configure the appropriate TRY . . . .CATCH construct, using the code so that you can further diagnose the error. What will you do for that?
Ans: I can use the ERROR_PROCEDURE() system function to determine the name of the trigger or stored procedure in which the error occurred.

18). How can you use @@ROWCOUNT to improve the performance of a trigger?
Ans: You can improve the performance of the trigger by testing whether @@ROWCOUNT is 0 in the very first line of the trigger. When no rows are affected, there is no point in proceeding with the trigger. It must be the first line because @@ROWCOUNT will be set back to 0 by any additional statement.
When the AFTER trigger begins, @@ROWCOUNT will contain the number of rows affected by the outer INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement.

19). You notice a system uses a lot of triggers to enforce foreign key constraints, and the triggers are error-prone and difficult to debug. What changes can you recommend to reduce the use of triggers? 
Ans: Foreign key constraints can be implemented by using triggers, but the code can become complex and error prone.
You can recommend instead that the database developers implement true referential integrity by using T-SQL declared foreign key constraints rather thantriggers.

20). Suppose there is an important table that requires some simple logging actions to take place after any changes to the data. The logging is to a custom table built especially to meet application requirements.What recommendation might you make to help implement such a logging action? 
Ans: I will recommend that the database developers use a DML AFTER trigger.
This type of trigger executes after an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement and it can write to the logging table.

21). What are the difference between Trigger and Stored Procedure?
Ans: Differences between Stored Procedures and triggers ---
  1. When you create a trigger you have to identify event and action of your trigger but when you create s.p you don't identify event and action 
  2. Trigger is run automatically if the event is occured but s.p don't run automatically but you have to run it manually 
  3. Trigger execute implicitly whereas store procedure execute via procedure call from another block. 
  4. Within a trigger you can call specific s.p but within a sp you cannot call atrigger 
  5. We can call a stored procedure from front end (.asp files, .aspx files, .ascx files etc.) but we can't call a trigger from these files. 
  6. Stored procedure can take the input parameters, but we can't pass the parameters as an input to a trigger. 
22). What is the difference between trigger and function in SQL Server?

Kindly share your feedback about our knowledge sharing, you like it, As we categorized all SQL Server questions. It will help us. Thanks happy learning and Best of luck.
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Monday, 28 March 2016

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Top 35 International Volunteer Interview Question Answers

Here we come with International Volunteer interview questions, Following are 35 most frequently asked interview questions, which asked by mostly all company. So if you are preparing for volunteer interview then this set for you.

International Volunteer Interview Question Answers

1). Why do you want to be a volunteer in our organization?

2). Tell me about your current and past volunteer experiences.

3). What skills and qualifications do you have that will help you in this position?

4). Describe a particularly stressful situation in which you have been involved.

5). Is There a Minimum Time Commitment?

6). What kind of rewards do you need to stay motivated?

7). Tell me about the 2 or 3 biggest problems you have encountered in your work, and how you handled them.

8). What did you like about serving in a leadership role?

9). What have you enjoyed most about previous volunteer positions?

10). How much time would you like to volunteer?

11). How many people were in the largest group that you have supervised? What kinds of positions were involved?

12). What if a team member says, "I won't work with you"?  How would you reply?

13). What do you do when you aren't (working, volunteering)?

14). Why are you supporting (the Nonprofit) as opposed to other groups working on (the Cause)?

15). What positive or negative school experiences have you had?

16). What would you do if a fight breaks out?

17). Tell me about a situation when you had to juggle different responsibilities and how you handled it.

18). What does customer service mean to you?

19). What do you want to gain from this role?

20). What's your favorite subject in school?

21). When you last (volunteered, made a donation, etc.), how did that make you feel?

22). What might (someone) be surprised to know about you?

23). How would you respond if you had a great idea and a staff member said no?

24). Describe what doing this role successfully looks like to you. Where do you feel like you will need the most training and support?

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Friday, 25 March 2016


Top 18 SQL Stored Procedure Interview Questions Answers

Here are the most frequently asked Stored procedure related interview questions for fresher as well as experienced developer which are asked during SQL Server interview. This set contain almost all stored procedure related interview questions, but if you faced any new stored procedure related interview question then share with us as a comment we will be thankful and it will help other readers as well. So help each other and get job. So lets start now. If you will share any question with answers then you can win a book.
So share question and win book....

1). What is Stored Procedure? 
Ans: A stored procedure is a named group of SQL statements that have been previously created and stored in the server database. Stored procedures accept input parameters so that a single procedure can be used over the network by several clients using different input data. And when the procedure is modified, all clients automatically get the new version. Stored procedures reduce network traffic and improve performance. Stored procedures can be used to help ensure the integrity of the database.

2). What are the uses of stored procedure?
Ans: Stored procedures are often used for data validation and as access control mechanism. Logic applied in applications can be centralized and stored in applications. Complex procedures and functionalities which require huge amount of data processing and logic implementation access their data by procedures. Data is stored in these procedures and accessed by procedures.

3). What are the type of Stored procedure in SQL Server?
  • System Defined Stored Procedure
  • Extended Procedure
  • User Defined Stored Procedure
  • CLR Stored Procedure
click here for more detail

4). What is the difference between a user defined function and a Stored procedure?
Ans: Click here for answer

5). Explain about recursive stored procedures?
Ans: Recursive stored procedures are used for performing repetitive tasks. Recursive feature is disabled by default but can be activated by using the following command on the server max_sp_recursion_depth, also don’t forget to rename the system variable to a non zero variable.

6). Can a stored procedure call itself or recursive stored procedure? How much level SP nesting is possible?
Ans: Yes. Because Transact-SQL supports recursion, you can write stored procedures that call themselves. You can nest stored procedures and managed code references up to 32 levels.

7). Have you ever created or used recursive stored procedure? Give example?
Ans: I created a recursive stored procedure for calculating the factorial of a number.
CREATE PROCEDURE [dbo].[Factorial_ap]
( @Number Integer,@RetVal Integer OUTPUT )

    DECLARE @In Integer
    DECLARE @Out Integer
    IF @Number != 1
        SELECT @In = @Number 1
        EXEC Factorial_ap @In, @Out OUTPUT
        SELECT @RetVal = @Number * @Out
                SELECT @RetVal = 1

8). What are the advantages of using a Stored Procedures? 
Ans: Following are the main advantage of using a SP
  • Reduce network usage between clients and servers – stored procedures perform intermediate processing on the database server reducing unnecessary data transfer across the network
  • Improved security – database administrator can control the users who access the stored procedure
  • Reduced development cost and increased reliability
  • Stored procedures are tunable to improve the performance. When same stored procedure executed again, it can use the previously cached execution plans
  • Separate or abstract server side functions from the client side
  • Stored procedures can encapsulate logic. You can change stored procedure code without affecting clients.
  • Access to other database objects in a secure and uniform way
  • Can prevent SQL injection attacks
  • Unit testable
  • Encapsulation of business logic – less chances to data become corrupted through faulty client programs.
9). What are the disadvantages of using a Stored Procedures? 
Ans: Following are the main disadvantage of using a SP
  • Writing and maintaining stored procedures requires more specialized skills.
  • There are no debuggers available for stored procedures
  • Stored procedure language may differ from one database system to another.
  • Poor exception handling
  • Tightly coupled to the database system
  • Not possible to use objects
  • Sometimes it is hard to understand the logic written in dynamic SQL
10). How do we recompile a stored procedure at run time? 
Ans: Add the WITH RECOMPILE hint when creating or executing the stored procedure

11). How to Optimize Stored Procedure Optimization? 
Ans: There are many tips and tricks for the same. Here are few:
  • Include SET NOCOUNT ON statement.
  • Use schema name with object name.
  • Do not use the prefix "sp_" in the stored procedure name.
  • Use IF EXISTS (SELECT 1) instead of (SELECT *).
  • Use the sp_executesql stored procedure instead of the EXECUTE statement.
  • Try to avoid using SQL Server cursors whenever possible.
  • Keep the Transaction as short as possible.
  • Use TRY-Catch for error handling.
12). How you will execute the stored procedure as a different user?
Ans: I will use EXECUTE AS
EXECUTE AS user = 'special_user'
EXECUTE YourProcerdure

13). What is the difference between stored procedure and view in SQL Server?
Ans: Views : They are the virtual table which consists of one or more rows and columns from different real tables of the Database. It is the template of rows and columns of multiple tables. You cannot pass any parameters here.

Stored Procedures : They are a collection of pre-executed sql Statements where you can send the parameters as input and retrieve the output data.

Summery difference of Stored procedure and View:
Stored Procedure:
1.Accept parameters
2.Can not be used as a building block in large query.
3.Can contain several statement like if, else, loop etc.
4.Can perform modification to one or several tables.
5.Can not be used as the target for Insert, update, delete queries.
6.We can use view inside stored procedure.

1.Does not accepts parameters
2.Can be used as a building block in large query.
3.Can contain only one single Select query.
4.Can not perform modification to any table.
5.Can be used (sometimes) as the target for Insert, update, delete queries.
6.We can't use stored procedure inside view.

14). How do we recompile a stored procedure at run time? 
Ans: By adding the WITH RECOMPILE hint when creating or executing the stored procedure.

15). Explain the differences between Stored Procedures and triggers?
Ans: 1. When you create a trigger you have to identify event and action of your trigger but when you create s.p you don't identify event and action
2.Trigger is run automatically if the event is occurred but s.p don't run automatically but you have to run it manually
3. Within a trigger you can call specific s.p but within a sp you cannot call a trigger
4.Trigger execute implicitly whereas store procedure execute via procedure call from another block.
5.We can call a stored procedure from front end (.asp files, .aspx files, .ascx files etc.) but we can't call a trigger from these files.
6. Stored procedure can take the input parameters, but we can't pass the parameters as an input to a trigger.

16). When would you use stored procedure or functions ? 
Ans: Functions are computed values and cannot perform permanent environmental changes to SQL Server (i.e. no INSERT or UPDATE statements allowed).
A Function can be used inline in SQL Statements if it returns a scalar value or can be joined upon if it returns a result set.
for more see the diffrence between them, and use according to that.

17). Why use functions instead of stored procedure in SQL?
Ans: If you want perform some calculation base on some column value, then you can use function instead of stored proc because you can not call a procedure in a select statement but you can call function in a select statement.

18). Can we use try and catch in stored procedure and function both? give and example?
Ans: We can use try and catch block in stored procedure, but not in user defined function(UDF)
Example(try catch in SP)
    SELECT 1/0
     ,ERROR_SEVERITY() AS ErrorSeverity
     ,ERROR_STATE() AS ErrorState
     ,ERROR_PROCEDURE() AS ErrorProcedure
     ,ERROR_LINE() AS ErrorLine
     ,ERROR_MESSAGE() AS ErrorMessage;

19). Can we use multiple select statements in a Stored Procedure SQL Server?
Ans: Yes, we can use multiple select statements in a SP.

20). Can we create Stored Procedure without "Begin" and "End" refer the below image and try to answers?

Ans: Yes, We can
21). Can we return NULL value using stored proc?

Ans: No, Stored procedures are not allowed to return the NULL value.
If you will try to return null value the you will get message as shown in the above screenshot.

Best of luck, please share interview question if you have any.
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Top 10 SQL Server Temporary Table Related Interview Questions Answers

1). What are the 2 types of Temporary Tables in SQL Server? 
1. Local Temporary Tables
2. Global Temporary Tables

2). What is the difference between Local and Global Temporary Tables? 

  • Local Temporary Tables:

  1. Prefixed with a single pound sign (#). 
  2. Local temporary tables are visible to that session of SQL Server which has created it/Exists only for duration of the connection/compound statement. 
  3. Local temporary tables are automatically dropped, when the session that created the temporary tables is closed.

  •  Global Temporary Tables:

  1. Prefixed with two pound signs (##). 
  2. Global temporary tables are visible to any user and any connection after being created. 
  3. Global temporary tables are also automatically dropped, when the session that created the temporary tables is closed.
4). In which database, the temporary tables get created? 
TEMPDB database.

5). How can I check for the existence of a temporary table? 
IF object_id('tempdb..##TEMPTABLE') IS NOT NULL

6). Table Variables vs. Temp Tables? 
  • Table var doesn't have to be memory-resident. Its pages can be moved to tempdb if memory is low
  • Rollback doesn't affect table vars
  • Table vars don't participate in transactions or locking
  • Any DML operations done on table variables are not logged
  • No statistics are maintained on table variables

7). Can you create foreign key constraints on temporary tables? 

8). Do you have to manually delete temporary tables? 
No, temporary tables are automatically dropped, when the session that created the temporary tables is closed. But if you maintain a persistent connection or if connection pooling is enabled, then it is better to explicitly drop the temporary tables you have created.
However, It is generally considered a good coding practice to explicitly drop every temporary table you create.
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SQL Server View Related Interview Questions Answers


1). What do you understand by View in SQL Server?
Ans: A view is a virtual table whose contents are defined by a query. or a view is a stored SELECT statement that works like a virtual table.

2). What are the types of view?

3). How many column a view can contain?
Ans: 1024

4). The tables that makes up a view are called as?
Ans: Base tables

5). Can you create a view by using temporary table?
Ans: No

6). Can you create a view by using another view(nesting views)?
Ans: Yes! you can build view on other views and nest them up to 32 levels, Basing a view on another view is known as nesting views.

7). What are the limitations of a View?

8). How you will encrypt a view, so that people can utilize view to run reports, but can't see the underlying code?
Ans: We can encrypt our view by using WITH ENCRYPTION keyword
Create View vEmployeeDetail
Select EmpID, Sum(Amount) as Total From Emp Group by EmpID

9). If you are going to change or drop a table, but you don't know how many views/proc etc are depend on this particular table, then how you will you find dependencies?
Ans: To check dependencies there is a system-supplied stored procedure, sp_depends, which will list all dependent objects for the object name you pass in.

10). What is the purpose of the WITH SCHEMABINDING clause and where can it be used?
Ans: WITH SCHEMABINDING can be used in Views and T-SQL Functions.
Objects that are schema bound can have their definition changed, but objects that are referenced by schema bound objects cannot have their definition changed.
Schema binding effectively states that the meta-data which is created at object creation time can then be relied upon to be accurate at all times, and use of sp_refreshsqlmodule is not necessary. Schema binding can also significantly increase the performance of user defined functions in SQL Server 2005 and above. However, caution should be applied, as this is definitely not always the case.

11). Can we use WITH SCHEMABINDING in Stored Procedures?
Ans: WITH SCHEMABINDING can't be used in Stored Procedures.

12). Will below script correct or not? If not what is wrong with it?
CREATE VIEW vProduct_WithSchemabinding
SELECT * FROM [Person].[Person]
Ans: If we are using WITH SCHEMABINDING then we can't use "Select *";
This will throw "Syntax '*' is not allowed in schema-bound objects." error

CREATE VIEW vProduct_WithSchemabinding
SELECT FirstName,LastName FROM [Person].[Person]

13). Is view store data physically apart from table or not?
Ans: A view is just a macro, it has no persistent storage.The underlying table data is stored in the MDF file. But its not always true, Creating a clustered index on the view materializes its data on disk, giving the view a physical dimension, as opposed to its normal virtual role.

14). What are the purpose of creating view?
Ans: View is used for the following purposes:
a) Security
b) Faster Response
c) Complex Query solve

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Thursday, 24 March 2016

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Top 10 Xpages Interview Questions Answers

Explain what is XPages?
XPages is a web and mobile application development platform. It allows IBM Domino data as well as data from relational and other data sources to be displayed to browser clients on all platforms.

Xpages are developed by?

How to get information from the event parameters in a XPage event?
When triggering a Event in an XPage the global object THIS will contain a XspEventEventHandler. We retrieve the parameters using a .getParameters() this will return a Java ArrayList
The code below loops thru the arraylist and gets the value from the parameter name that matches the Key variable
var value=this.getParameters();
var tmp="";
var Key="MyParameter"; // Key contains the parameter name you want to retreve
requestScope.MyField=tmp; // Place the parameter data in the MyField requestScope vaiable
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Top 30 Scrum Interview Questions Answers PDF

Here we come with Scrum master framework interview questions answers, you can download pdf.

1). Explain what is Scrum?
Scrum is an iterative and incremental agile software development framework for managing product development.

2). Who founded Scrum?
Ken Schwaber co-developed the Scrum process with Jeff Sutherland in the early 1990s to help organizations struggling with complex development projects. One of the signatories to the Agile Manifesto in 2001, he subsequently founded the Agile Alliance and Scrum Alliance.

3). Why is Scrum popular?
In fact there are several reasons. Let me list all of them:

  • Scrum looks very simple. Indeed, the methodology is very lightweight with just 3 roles, some basic reports and rules. So you may have a feeling that you know how to apply Scrum after reading a single book. This feeling is definitely false, but still it looks simple and people like simplicity.
  • Scrum works. Yes, it does. In many cases it works better than the traditional processes.
  • Scrum is commercial. There are many trainers around, there is Scrum Alliance that runs many courses and does everything to make Scrum popular. The first agile methodology most people know is Scrum. Technically, Scrum is very similar to Extreme Programming, but historically it happens that XP is not so popular, while Scrum is.
4). What is the advantage of doing Scrum?
The advantage of doing scrum is that while performing the test
  • It minimizes the risk in response to changes made to the system
  • It improves the process continuously
  • It repeatedly and rapidly looks into actual working software
  • Fast feedback. With short iterations you can show working software much earlier and receive a valuable feedback.
  • Transparency. Again, short iterations provide good transparency.
  • Good financial control. Business can cancel or stop a project after any sprint (in theory, in practice it is not that easy).
  • Better quality. Most practices in agile processes help development teams to fix the root problems and create a better software.
  • Faster time to market. Agile teams often have better morale and motivation to create something great. It definitely affects how they work and how they ship.
  • Anyone can see real working software and continue to enhance for another iteration
5). What are the disadvantage of doing Scrum?
  • Agile Scrum is one of the leading causes of scope creep because unless there is a definite end date, the project management stakeholders will be tempted to keep demanding new functionality is delivered.
  • If a task is not well defined, estimating project costs and time will not be accurate. In such a case, the task can be spread over several sprints.
  • If the team members are not committed, the project will either never complete or fail.
  • Quality is hard to implement till the team goes through aggressive testing process
  • It is good for small, fast moving projects as it works well only with small team.
  • This methodology needs experienced team members only. If the team consists of people who are novices, the project cannot be completed in time.
  • Scrum works well when the Scrum Master trusts the team they are managing. If they practice too strict control over the team members, it can be extremely frustrating for them, leading to demoralisation and the failure of the project.
  • If any of the team members leave during a development it can have a huge inverse effect on the project development
  • Project quality management is hard to implement and quantify unless the test team are able to conduct regression testing after each sprint.
6). What are some of the drawbacks of the conventional software development processes?
There are many. To me the worst thing in waterfall is extremely slow feedback. Fast feedback is vital for project success, but with waterfall you have very long feedback cycles (sometimes years). With such long cycles everything may change. Business may change, requirements may change, etc. It is hard to cancel such a project, since it is often “90% done”. Business has close to zero visibility about the real progress.
It is extremely hard to provide meaningful estimates. So most projects are seriously late and over budget.

7). What are the three key participants in any Scrum Project?
  • The Scrum Team - This is a cross-functional, self-organized and high-performing team that works on the Project Deliverable.
  • The Product Owner - The Product Owner in a Scrum Project is the liaison between the Project Team and the Business Stakeholders. He maintains a list of project  features/requirements that are ordered based on priority. His key  purpose is to make sure the project team understands the requirements  properly and validates the finished product for its “Fitness for Use”  once the cycle is complete. He or she is also responsible for  articulating customer requirements and maintaining business  justification for the project. The Product Owner represents the Voice of the Customer
  • The Scrum Master - The Scrum Master is the equivalent of a Project Manager to a regular  project. He ensures that the Scrum Team is provided with an environment  conducive to complete the project successfully. The Scrum Master guides,  facilitates, and teaches Scrum practices to everyone involved in the  project and ensures that Scrum processes are being followed
8). How long does a scrum cycle last? Who are involved in Scrum cycle?
Scrum cycle depends on the type of project the team is working on, usually, it ranges about 2-4 weeks to about a month.  In scrum cycle, it includes a
Scrum master
Product owner

9). Explain what is user stories in Scrum?
In scrum, user stories are short, one sentence definitions of a feature or functionality.

10). List out what are the artifacts of Scrum process?
Scrum process artifacts include
  • Sprint backlog
  • Product backlog
  • Velocity chart
  • Burn-down chart
11). During Scrum meeting what all things are done?
During scrum meeting
Team analyze how much time they got to complete task during the Sprint
From product backlog, team takes the first item and breaks into tasks
Team estimates how long a task will take
If there is any time left during the sprint, they will move on to the next item on the product backlog
Decide the features which have clarity and estimates how many to be scoped for sprint

12). Explain what does the burn down charts shows?
Burn down charts is used to track sprint status, they act as an early warning indicators; they can be useful in highlighting the “lack of progress”.  Also, they will highlight the area where they see redundancy.

13). Mention what is the objective behind holding a Sprint retrospective meeting?
The objective behind Sprint retrospective meeting is to let team members know how things went during the sprint and discuss possible ways for further improvements for future sprints.

14). Explain what is Scrum Sprint?
Scrum project is developed in a series of “sprint”. It is a repeatable and regular work cycle in scrum methodology during which work is accomplished and kept ready for review.

15). What is a Product Backlog?
In the simplest definition the Scrum Product Backlog is simply a list of all things that needs to be done within the project. It replaces the traditional requirements specification artifacts. These items can have a technical nature or can be user-centric e.g. in the form of user stories.

16). Explain what the ideal duration is for Sprint, and how it affects the workflow?
Sprint in Scrum usually lasts for 30 days or two weeks.  The two-week sprint is preferred for various reason, first it makes easier for the team to estimate, plan and complete the work in two weeks. Secondly, it gives enough time to the product owner to change the priorities more often and allows the team to adapt quickly to the market pressures.

17). Mention what is the difference between Sprint and Iteration in Scrum?
Iteration: It is a terminology used to define single development cycle in general agile methods. It is a common term used in the iterative and Incremental development process.
Sprint: It is used to define one development cycle or iterative step in a specialized agile method referred as Scrum. Sprint is scrum specific, and not all forms of iterations are Sprints.

18). Mention in brief, what is the role of scrum master in Scrum?
Removes any obstacles that the team faces during the pursuit of its sprint goals
Maximizing the productivity of the team
Making sure that the scripting language used for system testing and unit testing is written in the same language
Guides the team and product owner to improve the effectiveness of their practices
Makes sure that all standard scrum practices are followed

19). Explain what is a product backlog in Scrum?
Before the scrum sprint initiates, product owner review the list of all new features, change requests, enhancements and bug reports and determines which ones are of high priorities. If the project is new it includes new features that the new system must provide, this list of item is referred as Product Backlog.  The items that are kept on sprint are referred as Sprint Backlog.

20). Explain what is “Sashimi” and “Impediments”?
Sashimi: This term is analogous to “done”, it is used to define the specific task when it is completed. The term used by different team to refer their completed task status may differ, but should remain same within one team.
Impediments: Any obstacle that prevent the team members from performing their work is referred as impediments

21). What does a scrum burn down chart should consist of?
A scrum burn down chart should consist of
X-axis that displays working days
Y-axis that displays remaining effort
Ideal effort as guideline
Real progress of effort

22). List out the dis-advantages of Scrum?
It will be a tricky job for a scrum master to plan, organize and structure a project that lacks a clear goal
Daily scrum meeting requires frequent reviews and substantial resources
A successful project relies on the maturity and dedication of all the team members
Uncertainty regarding the product, frequent changes and frequent product delivery remains during the scrum cycle
It makes all dysfunction visible
It requires significant change

23). Explain what is scrum poker or planning poker?
Scrum poker or planning poker is a technique to estimate the relative size of development goals in software development.  It is a way to determine sprint item durations by playing number cards face down the table, instead of speaking them aloud.

24). Explain what is “Velocity”?
“Velocity” is the total effort a team is capable of in a sprint.  The number is obtained by adding all the story points from the last sprint’s stories.  It is a guideline for the team to understand how many stories they can do in a sprint.

25). Explain what is a story point in Scrum?
Each feature in scrum is Story. Story point is an arbitrary measure used by Scrum teams, and it is a metric used by agile teams to determine the difficulty of implementing a given story.
12) Explain what is scrum of scrum?
Scrum of scrum is used to refer the meeting after the daily scrum.  The responsible person from each team attends the meeting and discuss their work and answer the questions like

26). Since the last meeting, what is the progress of the team?
What your team is expected to do or should accomplish, before the next meeting?
What are the obstacles your team faced while completing the task?
Were you going to allot any of your work to the following team?

27). Explain what velocity in scrum is and how it is measured?
Velocity in a scrum is a measurement of how much the team gets work done in an iterations or sprint. It is measured by
V= Number of total story points / One iteration

28). Explain the term “Increment”?
The term “Increment” is used to refer the total number of the product backlog items completed during the sprint and all previous sprints. At the end of the sprint, increment should be in done status; also, it must be in re-useable condition regardless of whether the product owner is willing to actually release a product or not.

29)Explain when Scrum cannot be useful?
Ideally scrum is useful to monitor work with 5 to 10 people, who are committed to achieving the sprint goal.  It does not go well with huge groups or team having more responsibilities.  For larger team, scrum can be applied by splitting the team into small groups and practice scrum.

30). What is the difference between Scrum and Agile Development?
Scrum is just one of the many iterative and incremental agile software development method. You can find here a very detailed description of the process.

In the SCRUM methodology a sprint is the basic unit of development. Each sprint starts with a planning meeting, where the tasks for the sprint are identified and an estimated commitment for the sprint goal is made. A Sprint ends with a review or retrospective meeting where the progress is reviewed and lessons for the next sprint are identified. During each sprint, the team creates finished portions of a product.

In the Agile methods each iteration involves a team working through a full software development cycle, including planning, requirements analysis, design, coding, unit testing, and acceptance testing when a working product is demonstrated to stakeholders.

So if in a SCRUM sprint you perform all the software development phases (from requirement analysis to acceptance testing), and in my opinion you should, you can say SCRUM sprints correspond to AGILE iterations.

31). What are the principles of Scrum?
Here are the principles with their short-hand meanings:
  • Deliver value to satisfy: Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software.
  • Accept changes willingly: Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer’s competitive advantage.
  • Prioritize, Breakdown, Deliver frequently: Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale.
  • Close collaboration, daily: Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project.
  • Trust & cultivate talent: Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.
  • Face-to-face works best: The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.
  • Delivery is Boolean: Working software is the primary measure of progress.
  • Maintain delivery velocity: Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.
  • Focus, Design, Excel: Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.
  • Do less, do better: Simplicity–the art of maximizing the amount of work not done–is essential.
  • Pick over assign: The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.
  • Reflect, Tune, Improvise: At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more  effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.
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TOP 30 Test Management tool Interview Questions Answers (TestRail) for Experienced

Here we come-up with Test management software tool (API) interview questions for testers. So lest try.

1). What do you understand by Test management tool?
Test management tools are used to store information on how testing is to be done, plan testing activities and report the status of quality assurance activities. The tools have different approaches to testing and thus have different sets of features. Generally they are used to maintain and plan manual testing, run or gather execution data from automated tests, manage multiple environments and to enter information about found defects.

2). Explain what is TestRail? 
TestRail helps testers, developers and team leads to efficiently manage, track and coordinate software testing efforts, all from a centralized and easy to use web application.

3). What are the advantage of TestRail tool?
All in one place: manage, organize and track all your testing efforts in a central place.
Web-based: easily access TestRail with your entire team – either hosted on your or our servers.
Modern interface: testing with a beautiful and highly productive user interface.

4). What is testing to you? Do you have a testing paradigm? Can you explain it?

5). Why did you choose software testing as a career, and what motivates you to stick with it?

6). Tell me about the work you’ve been doing recently. What’s the most interesting bug that you’ve found, and why?

7). What kind of challenges does testing present? Can you tell me about some specific software testing challenges you’ve faced, and how you overcame them?

8). Hiring an awesome tester isn’t just about making sure they have the right skills for the work you need them to do. It’s of paramount importance that they are a fit for your organisation and the team they’ll be working with. Use the questions below to help you figure out where their strengths and weaknesses lie, and whether their values align with yours.

9). Have you encountered any challenges working with your colleagues? Tell me about a specific instance when you were in a difficult situation, and how you dealt with it.

10). How about situations where you have to make decisions… Have you ever made a bad decision? What contributed to you making that decision? How did you deal with the consequences?

11). What process are you using for testing currently? Can you describe how you might improve it?

12). Now we’re getting to the good stuff. What kind of a tester are you dealing with here? Do they know their edges from their corner cases? Can they distinguish between a test and a check? Do they understand their biases and models, and how a worldview can influence their approach and decision making process? Use the questions below to dig deep into their testing toolkit and to make sure they don’t view every testing problem as a nail to be pounded with a blunt instrument.

13). What kind of tests have you been doing? What do you enjoy about them? How do you develop those tests?

14). How have you added value to the organisations you’ve worked with? Can you give me a specific example from your last or current position?

15). When you perform a test, what steps do you take? What’s your process?

16). Have you ever written a test plan? What would you put in one?

17). No doubt many readers will be hiring for automation skills; but being able to automate testing activities isn’t just about understanding the right tool, language or framework. It’s about identifying where the risks to the product are and then being able to pinpoint those risks by developing intelligent, reliable and repeatable automated tests. You want your tester to help you speed up the development and delivery of your product, not slow it down. Use the questions below to help you figure out whether they have the depth of knowledge to do so.

18). Have you automated any of your tests? How so?

19). How do you priorities your testing? What factors might influence your decisions?

20). How do you know when it’s time to stop testing?

21). What’s the role of risk in your testing? How do you analyse and measure it?

22). Do you measure how effective (or not) your testing is? What metrics do you use?

23). What do you do if the developers decide the bug is not a bug?

24). How do you decide which tests to automate? Which tests don’t you automate, and why?

25). Testing can be challenging. What keeps you motivated?

26). How do you stay at the top of your game? What self-learning do you do?

27). What have you been criticized for in the past? How did you respond to that criticism? What did you do about it?

28). Describe the characteristics of your ideal boss, and why.

29). What’s your favourite testing tool? Why? If some technical constraint meant you were unable to use it, what would you do instead?

30). How do you know when you (or your automation) has found a bug? What makes it a bug? Are some bugs more important than others? How do you report them?

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Top 80 Selenium Interview Question Answers for Experienced as well as Freshers

Hey guys, here we come-up with Selenium software interview questions set, this set contain top 80 most frequently asked Selenium framework interview question during Testing interview. So if you are a tester and preparing for Selenium webdriver interview questions then this set is for you, If you carefully go through all 80 questions then you will earn good confidence before your interview so must go through all these questions and share your interview questions if you have more interview question we will add in this series.

So lets start..

1). What is Automation Testing?
Automation testing or Test Automation is a process of automating the manual process to test the application/system under test. Automation testing involves use to a separate testing tool which lets you create test scripts which can be executed repeatedly and doesn’t require any manual intervention.

2). What are the benefits/advantages of Automation Testing?
Benefits of Automation testing are:
  1. Supports execution of repeated test cases
  2. Aids in testing a large test matrix
  3. Enables parallel execution
  4. Encourages unattended execution
  5. Improves accuracy thereby reducing human generated errors
  6. Saves time and money
  7. Better Quality Software
3). What are the disadvantages of Automation Testing?
  1. High investment is needed in the tools and training
  2. High man power requirement for test preparations
  3. A lot of testing areas left uncovered
4). Explain what is Selenium and what is composed of?
Selenium is a suite of tools for automated web testing.  It is composed of
  • Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) :  It is a tool for recording and playing back.  It is a firefox plugin
  • WebDriver and RC:  It provide the APIs for a variety of languages like Java, .NET, PHP, etc. With most of the browsers Webdriver and RC works.
  • Grid: With the help of Grid you can distribute tests on multiple machines so that test can be run parallel which helps in cutting down the time required for running in browser test suites
5). What do we mean by Selenium 1 and Selenium 2?
Selenium RC and WebDriver, in a combination are popularly known as Selenium 2. Selenium RC alone is also referred as Selenium 1.

6). Which is the latest Selenium tool?

7). What are the testing types that can be supported by Selenium?
Selenium supports the following types of testing:
  1. Functional Testing
  2. Regression Testing
8). Why should Selenium be selected as a test tool?
Selenium free and open source
2.have a large user base and helping communities
3.have cross Browser compatibility (Firefox, chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari etc.)
4.have great platform compatibility (Windows, Mac OS, Linux etc.)
5.supports multiple programming languages (Java, C#, Ruby, Python, Pearl etc.)
6.has fresh and regular repository developments
7.supports distributed testing

9). What are the different types of waits available in WebDriver?
There are two types of waits available in WebDriver:
1.Implicit Wait
2.Explicit Wait
Implicit Wait: Implicit waits are used to provide a default waiting time (say 30 seconds) between each consecutive test step/command across the entire test script. Thus, subsequent test step would only execute when the 30 seconds have elapsed after executing the previous test step/command.
Explicit Wait: Explicit waits are used to halt the execution till the time a particular condition is met or the maximum time has elapsed. Unlike Implicit waits, explicit waits are applied for a particular instance only.

10). What are the limitations of Selenium?
Following are the limitations of Selenium:
  • Selenium supports testing of only web based applications
  • Mobile applications cannot be tested using Selenium
  • Captcha and Bar code readers cannot be tested using Selenium
  • Reports can only be generated using third party tools like TestNG or Junit.
  • As Selenium is a free tool, thus there is no ready vendor support though the user can find numerous helping communities.
  • User is expected to possess prior programming language knowledge.
11). When should I use Selenium IDE?
Selenium IDE is the simplest and easiest of all the tools within the Selenium Package. Its record and playback feature makes it exceptionally easy to learn with minimal acquaintances to any programming language. Selenium IDE is an ideal tool for a naïve user.

12). How do I launch the browser using WebDriver?
The following syntax can be used to launch Browser:
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();

13). What is Selenese?
Selenese is the language which is used to write test scripts in Selenium IDE.

14). When should I use Selenium Grid?
Selenium Grid can be used to execute same or different test scripts on multiple platforms and browsers concurrently so as to achieve distributed test execution, testing under different environments and saving execution time remarkably.

15).  What is Selenium? What are the different Selenium components?
Selenium is one of the most popular automated testing suites. Selenium is designed in a way to support and encourage automation testing of functional aspects of web based applications and a wide range of browsers and platforms. Due to its existence in the open source community, it has become one of the most accepted tools among the testing professionals.
Selenium is not just a single tool or a utility, rather a package of several testing tools and for the same reason it is referred to as a Suite. Each of these tools is designed to cater different testing and test environment requirements.
The suite package constitutes of the following sets of tools:
  • Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE) – Selenium IDE is a record and playback tool. It is distributed as a Firefox Plugin. 
  • Selenium Remote Control (RC) – Selenium RC is a server that allows user to create test scripts in a desired programming language. It also allows executing test scripts within the large spectrum of browsers. 
  • Selenium WebDriver – WebDriver is a different tool altogether that has various advantages over Selenium RC. WebDriver directly communicates with the web browser and uses its native compatibility to automate. 
  • Selenium Grid – Selenium Grid is used to distribute your test execution on multiple platforms and environments concurrently.
16). What is an Xpath?
Xpath is used to locate a web element based on its XML path. XML stands for Extensible Markup Language and is used to store, organize and transport arbitrary data. It stores data in a key-value pair which is very much similar to HTML tags. Both being markup languages and since they fall under the same umbrella, Xpath can be used to locate HTML elements.
The fundamental behind locating elements using Xpath is the traversing between various elements across the entire page and thus enabling a user to find an element with the reference of another element.

17). How to type in a textbox using Selenium?
User can use sendKeys(“String to be entered”) to enter the string in the textbox.
WebElement username = drv.findElement(“Email”));
// entering username

18). How can you find if an element in displayed on the screen?
WebDriver facilitates the user with the following methods to check the visibility of the web elements. These web elements can be buttons, drop boxes, checkboxes, radio buttons, labels etc.

boolean buttonPresence = driver.findElement(“gbqfba”)).isDisplayed();

boolean buttonSelected =driver.findElement(“gbqfba”)).isDisplayed();

boolean searchIconEnabled = driver.findElement(“gbqfb”)).isEnabled();

19). Can you explain the phase of Automation Testing LifeCycle?
  • Outline the potential benefits and test tool proposal
  • Test tool evaluation and selection 
  • Steps necessary to outline automated testing to the project
  • Identifies the test procedure standards, defines the tests, defines development standard
  • Test plans are executed
  • This is done throughout the life-cycle 

20). What are the different types of locators in Selenium?
Locator can be termed as an address that identifies a web element uniquely within the webpage. Thus, to identify web elements accurately and precisely we have different types of locators in Selenium:
  • ID
  • ClassName
  • Name
  • TagName
  • LinkText
  • PartialLinkText
  • Xpath
  • CSS Selector
  • DOM
21). What are the different types of Drivers available in WebDriver?
The different drivers available in WebDriver are:
  • FirefoxDriver
  • InternetExplorerDriver
  • ChromeDriver
  • SafariDriver
  • OperaDriver
  • AndroidDriver
  • IPhoneDriver
  • HtmlUnitDriver
22). What is difference between assert and verify commands?
Assert command checks whether the given condition is true or false. Let’s say we assert whether the given element is present on the web page or not. If the condition is true then the program control will execute the next test step but if the condition is false, the execution would stop and no further test would be executed.
Verify command also checks whether the given condition is true or false. Irrespective of the condition being true or false, the program execution doesn’t halts i.e. any failure during verification would not stop the execution and all the test steps would be executed.

23). What are the steps to run automation using selenium?
The very basic steps are:
  1. Record the test steps using selenium-IDE. 
  2. Modify the script according to the testing needs. Add validation points, Java Scripts, Time-out etc. 
  3. Run the test. 
  4. View the result after test run complete analyze.
24). What are the capabilities of Selenium IDE?
Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) works similar to commercial tools like QTP, Silk Test and Test Partner etc.
The below points describes well about Selenium IDE.
  1. Selenium IDE is a Firefox add-on. 
  2. Selenium IDE can support recording the clicks, typing, and other actions to make a test cases. 
  3. Using Selenium IDE, a tester can play back the test cases in the Firefox browser. 
  4. Selenium IDE supports exporting the test cases and suites to Selenium RC. 
  5. Debugging of the test cases with step-by-step can be done. 
  6. Breakpoint insertion is possible. 
  7. Page abstraction functionality is supported by Selenium IDE. 
  8. Selenium IDE can supports an extensibility capability allowing the use of add-ons or user extensions that expand the functionality of Selenium IDE
25). How to find more than one web element in the list?
At times, we may come across elements of same type like multiple hyperlinks, images etc arranged in an ordered or unordered list. Thus, it makes absolute sense to deal with such elements by a single piece of code and this can be done using WebElement List.

Sample Code
// Storing the list
List elementList = driver.findElements(By.xpath("//div[@id='example']//ul//li"));
// Fetching the size of the list
int listSize = elementList.size();
for (int i=0; i {
// Clicking on each service provider link
// Navigating back to the previous page that stores link to service providers

26). What is the difference between driver.close() and driver.quit command?
close(): WebDriver’s close() method closes the web browser window that the user is currently working on or we can also say the window that is being currently accessed by the WebDriver. The command neither requires any parameter nor does is return any value.
quit(): Unlike close() method, quit() method closes down all the windows that the program has opened. Same as close() method, the command neither requires any parameter nor does is return any value.

27). How can we get a text of a web element?
Get command is used to retrieve the inner text of the specified web element. The command doesn’t require any parameter but returns a string value. It is also one of the extensively used commands for verification of messages, labels, errors etc displayed on the web pages.
String Text = driver.findElement(“Text”)).getText();
What is the difference between “/” and “//” in Xpath?
Single Slash “/” –
Single slash is used to create Xpath with absolute path i.e. the xpath would be created to start selection from the document node/start node.

Double Slash “//” –
Double slash is used to create Xpath with relative path i.e. the xpath would be created to start selection from anywhere within the document.
How to select value in a dropdown?
Value in the drop down can be selected using WebDriver’s Select class.

Select selectByValue = new Select(driver.findElement(“SelectID_One”)));

Select selectByVisibleText = new Select (driver.findElement(“SelectID_Two”)));

Select selectByIndex = new Select(driver.findElement(“SelectID_Three”)));

28). What are the different types of navigation commands?
Following are the navigation commands:

navigate().back() – The above command requires no parameters and takes back the user to the previous webpage in the web browser’s history.
Sample code:

navigate().forward() –
This command lets the user to navigate to the next web page with reference to the browser’s history.

Sample code:

navigate().refresh() –
This command lets the user to refresh the current web page there by reloading all the web elements.

Sample code:

navigate().to() –
This command lets the user to launch a new web browser window and navigate to the specified URL.

Sample code:

29). How to get title?
driver.getTitle();~To Print: System.out.println( driver.getTitle());

30). Can Selenium handle windows based pop up?
Selenium is an automation testing tool which supports only web application testing. Therefore, windows pop up cannot be handled using Selenium.

31). Can WebDriver test Mobile applications?
WebDriver cannot test Mobile applications. WebDriver is a web based testing tool, therefore applications on the mobile browsers can be tested.

32). How can we handle web based pop up?
WebDriver offers the users with a very efficient way to handle these pop ups using Alert interface. There are the four methods that we would be using along with the Alert interface.
• void dismiss() – The accept() method clicks on the “Cancel” button as soon as the pop up window appears.
• void accept() – The accept() method clicks on the “Ok” button as soon as the pop up window appears.
• String getText() – The getText() method returns the text displayed on the alert box.
• void sendKeys(String stringToSend) – The sendKeys() method enters the specified string pattern into the alert box.

// accepting javascript alert
Alert alert = driver.switchTo().alert();

33). How can we handle windows based pop up?
Selenium is an automation testing tool which supports only web application testing, that means, it doesn’t support testing of windows based applications. However Selenium alone can’t help the situation but along with some third party intervention, this problem can be overcome. There are several third party tools available for handling window based pop ups along with the selenium like AutoIT, Robot class etc.

34). How to click on a hyper link using linkText?
The command finds the element using link text and then click on that element and thus the user would be re-directed to the corresponding page.
The above mentioned link can also be accessed by using the following command.

The above command find the element based on the substring of the link provided in the parenthesis and thus partialLinkText() finds the web element with the specified substring and then clicks on it.

35). How to assert title of the web page?
//verify the title of the web page
assertTrue(“The title of the window is incorrect.”,driver.getTitle().equals(“Title of the page”));

36). What is a framework?
Framework is a constructive blend of various guidelines, coding standards, concepts, processes, practices, project hierarchies, modularity, reporting mechanism, test data injections etc. to pillar automation testing.

37). How to handle frame in WebDriver?
An inline frame acronym as iframe is used to insert another document with in the current HTML document or simply a web page into a web page by enabling nesting.
Select iframe by id
driver.switchTo().frame(“ID of the frame“);

Locating iframe using tagName
Locating iframe using index


frame(Name of Frame)
driver.switchTo().frame(“name of the frame”);

38). When do we use findElement() and findElements()?
findElement(): findElement() is used to find the first element in the current web page matching to the specified locator value. Take a note that only first matching element would be fetched.

WebElement element =

findElements() is used to find all the elements in the current web page matching to the specified locator value. Take a note that all the matching elements would be fetched and stored in the list of WebElements.

List elementList =

39). What are the advantages of Automation framework?
Advantage of Test Automation framework
  • Reusability of code
  • Maximum coverage
  • Recovery scenario
  • Low cost maintenance
  • Minimal manual intervention
  • Easy Reporting
40). How can I read test data from excels?
Test data can efficiently be read from excel using JXL or POI API. See detailed tutorial here.

41). Explain how Selenium Grid works?
Selenium Grid sent the tests to the hub. These tests are redirected to Selenium Webdriver, which launch the browser and run the test. With entire test suite, it allows for running tests in parallel.

42). How to mouse hover on a web element using WebDriver?
WebDriver offers a wide range of interaction utilities that the user can exploit to automate mouse and keyboard events. Action Interface is one such utility which simulates the single user interactions.
Thus, In the following scenario, we have used Action Interface to mouse hover on a drop down which then opens a list of options.

Sample Code:
// Instantiating Action Interface
Actions actions=new Actions(driver);
// howering on the dropdown
actions.moveToElement(driver.findElement("id of the dropdown"))).perform();
// Clicking on one of the items in the list options
WebElement subLinkOption=driver.findElement("id of the sub link"));;

43). Can captcha be automated?
No, captcha and bar code reader cannot be automated.

44). Explain what is assertion in Selenium and what are the types of assertion?
Assertion is used as a verification point. It verifies that the state of the application conforms to what is expected. The types of assertion are “assert” , “verify” and “waifFor”..

45). While using click command can you use screen coordinate?
To click on specific part of element, you would need to use clickAT command. ClickAt command accepts element locator and x, y co-ordinates as arguments-
clickAt (locator, cordString)

46). What are the advantages of Selenium?
  • It supports C#, PHP, Java, Perl, Phython
  • It supports different OS like Windows, Linux and Mac OS
  • It has got powerful methods to locate elements (Xpath, DOM , CSS)
  • It has highly developer community supported by Google
47). How to retrieve css properties of an element?
The values of the css properties can be retrieved using a get() method:
driver.findElement(“id“)).getCssValue(“name of css attribute”);
 How to capture screen shot in WebDriver?
import org.junit.After;
import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.openqa.selenium.OutputType;
import org.openqa.selenium.TakesScreenshot;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver;
public class CaptureScreenshot {
WebDriver driver;
public void setUp() throws Exception {
driver = new FirefoxDriver();
public void tearDown() throws Exception {
public void test() throws IOException {
// Code to capture the screenshot
File scrFile = ((TakesScreenshot)driver).getScreenshotAs(OutputType.FILE);
// Code to copy the screenshot in the desired location
FileUtils.copyFile(scrFile, new File("C:\\CaptureScreenshot\\google.jpg"));

48). What is the difference between type keys and type commands ?
TypeKeys() will trigger JavaScript event in most of the cases whereas .type() won’t. Type key populates the value attribute using JavaScript whereas .typekeys() emulates like actual user typing

49). What is the difference between setSpeed() and sleep() methods?
:Both will delay the speed of execution.
Thread.sleep () : It will stop the current (java) thread for the specified period of time. Its done only once

• It takes a single argument in integer format
Ex: thread.sleep(2000)- It will wait for 2 seconds

• It waits only once at the command given at sleep
SetSpeed () : For specific amount of time it will stop the execution for every selenium command.

• It takes a single argument in integer format
Ex: selenium.setSpeed(“2000”)- It will wait for 2 seconds

• Runs each command after setSpeed delay by the number of milliseconds mentioned in set Speed
This command is useful for demonstration purpose or if you are using a slow web application
What is same origin policy? How you can avoid same origin policy?
The “Same Origin Policy” is introduced for security reason, and it ensures that content of your site will never be accessible by a script from another site. As per the policy, any code loaded within the browser can only operate within that website’s domain.

To avoid “Same Origin Policy” proxy injection method is used, in proxy injection mode the Selenium Server acts as a client configured HTTP proxy , which sits between the browser and application under test and then masks the AUT under a fictional URL

50). What is Object Repository? How can we create Object Repository in Selenium?
Object Repository is a term used to refer to the collection of web elements belonging to Application Under Test (AUT) along with their locator values. Thus, whenever the element is required within the script, the locator value can be populated from the Object Repository. Object Repository is used to store locators in a centralized location instead of hard coding them within the scripts.

In Selenium, objects can be stored in an excel sheet which can be populated inside the script whenever required.
What is Selenium and what is composed of?
Selenium is a suite of tools for automated web testing. It is composed of
  • Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) : It is a tool for recording and playing back. It is a firefox plugin 
  • WebDriver and RC: It provide the APIs for a variety of languages like Java, .NET, PHP, etc. With most of the browsers Webdriver and RC works. 
  • Grid: With the help of Grid you can distribute tests on multiple machines so that test can be run parallel which helps in cutting down the time required for running in browser test suites
51). What is Selenium 2.0 ?
Web testing tools Selenium RC and WebDriver are consolidated in single tool in Selenium 2.0

52). Mention what is the use of X-path?
X-Path is used to find the WebElement in web pages. It is also useful in identifying the dynamic elements.
List out the technical challenges with Selenium?
Technical challenges with Selenium are
  • Selenium supports only web based applications
  • It does not support the Bitmap comparison
  • For any reporting related capabilities have to depend on third party tools
  • No vendor support for tool compared to commercial tools like HP UFT
  • As there is no object repository concept in Selenium, maintainability of objects becomes difficult
53). List out the test types that are supported by Selenium?
For web based application testing selenium can be used
The test types can be supported are
a) Functional
b) Regression

For post release validation with continuous integration automation tool could be used
a) Jenkins
b) Hudson
c) Quick Build
d) CruiseCont

54). What is heightened privileges browsers?
The purpose of heightened privileges is similar to Proxy Injection, allows websites to do something that are not commonly permitted. The key difference is that the browsers are launced in a special mode called heightened privileges. By using these browser mode, Selenium core can open the AUT directly and also read/write its content without passing the whole AUT through the Selenium RC server

55). Why testers should opt for Selenium and not QTP?
Selenium is more popular than QTP as
  • Selenium is an open source whereas QTP is a commercial tool
  • Selenium is used specially for testing web based applications while QTP can be used for testing client server application also
  • Selenium supports Firefox, IE, Opera, Safari on operating systems like Windows, Mac, linux etc. however QTP is limited to Internet Explorer on Windows.
  • Selenium supports many programming languages like Ruby, Perl, Python whereas QTP supports only VB script
56). What are the four parameter you have to pass in Selenium?
Four parameters that you have to pass in Selenium are
  • Host
  • Port Number
  • Browser
  • URL
57). How you can use “submit” a form using Selenium ?
You can use “submit” method on element to submit form-
element.submit () ;
Alternatively you can use click method on the element which does form submission

Selenium IDE captures 3 options?
Command, Target, Value

58). Mention what is the difference between Implicit wait and Explicit wait?
Implicit Wait:Sets a timeout for all successive Web Element searches. For the specified amount of time it will try looking for element again and again before throwing a NoSuchElementException. It waits for elements to show up.

Explicit Wait : It is a one-timer, used for a particular search./p>

59). What is Object Repository ?
An object repository is an essential entity in any UI automations which allows a tester to store all object that will be used in the scripts in one or more centralized locations rather than scattered all over the test scripts.

60). Explain how to assert text of webpage using selenium 2.0 ?
WebElement el = driver.findElement(“ElementID”))
//get test from element and stored in text variable

String text = el.getText();
//assert text from expected
Assert.assertEquals(“Element Text”, text);

61). Can we use Selenium grid for performance testing?
Yes. But not as effectively as a dedicated performance testing tool like Loadrunner.

62). Can Selenium test an application on Android browser?
Selenium can handle Android browser.

63). Which browsers does WebDriver support?
The existing drivers are the ChromeDriver, InternetExplorerDriver, FirefoxDriver, OperaDriver and HtmlUnitDriver. For more information about each of these, including their relative strengths and weaknesses, please follow the links to the relevant pages. There is also support for mobile testing via the AndroidDriver, OperaMobileDriver and IPhoneDriver

64). What tests can selenium do?
Selenium could do functional, regression, and load of web based applications.p>

65). Which attribute you should consider throughout the script in frame for “if no frame Id as well as no frame name”?
You can use…..driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//iframe”))….
This will return list of frames.
You will ned to switch to each and every frame and search for locator which we want.
Then break the loop

66). How do I execute Javascript directly?
We believe that most of the time there is a requirement to execute Javascript there is a failing in the tool being used: it hasn’t emitted the correct events, has not interacted with a page correctly, or has failed to react when an XmlHttpRequest returns. We would rather fix WebDriver to work consistently and correctly than rely on testers working out which Javascript method to call.
We also realise that there will be times when this is a limitation. As a result, for those browsers that support it, you can execute Javascript by casting the WebDriver instance to a JavascriptExecutor. In Java, this looks like:

WebDriver driver; // Assigned elsewhere

JavascriptExecutor js = (JavascriptExecutor) driver;

js.executeScript(“return document.title”);

Other language bindings will follow a similar approach. Take a look at the UsingJavascript page for more information.

67). My XPath finds elements in one browser, but not in others. Why is this?
The short answer is that each supported browser handles XPath slightly differently, and you’re probably running into one of these differences. The long answer is on the XpathInWebDriver page..

68). Explain what is the difference between find elements () and find element () ?
find element ():
It finds the first element within the current page using the given “locating mechanism”. It returns a single WebElement

findElements () :
Using the given “locating mechanism” find all the elements within the current page. It returns a list of web elements.
Explain what are the JUnits annotation linked with Selenium?
The JUnits annotation linked with Selenium are

@Before public void method() –
It will perform the method () before each test, this method can prepare the test

@Test public void method() –
Annotations @Test identifies that this method is a test method environment

@After public void method()-
To execute a method before this annotation is used, test method must start with test@Before

69). What is Selenium IDE?
Selenium IDE is an integrated development environment for Selenium tests. It is implemented as a Firefox extension, and has a recording feature, which will keep account of user actions as they are performed and store them as a reusable script to play back. Selenium-IDE also offers full editing of test cases for more precision and control.

70). Why is my Javascript execution always returning null?
ou need to return from your javascript snippet to return a value, so:

will return null, but:

js.executeScript(“return document.title”);
will return the title of the document.

71). What is WebDriver?
WebDriver is a tool for writing automated tests of websites. It aims to mimic the behaviour of a real user, and as such interacts with the HTML of the application

72). Can Selenium test a application on iPhone’s Mobile Safari browser?
Selenium can handle Mobile Safari browser. There is experimental Selenium IPhone Driver for running tests on Mobile with Safari on the iPhone and iPad and iPod Touch.

73). What are the disadvantages of Selenium?
Disadvantages of Selenium:
  • Limitation in terms of browser support (It runs only in Mozilla).Scripts written using Selenium IDE can be used for other browsers only if it is used with Selenium RC or Selenium Core. 
  • We can’t run recorded script if it is converted to Java, C#, Ruby etc. 
  • Not allowed to write manual scripts like conditions and Loops for Data Driven Testing 
  • There is no option to verify images
74). Explain what is Datadriven framework and Keyword driven?
Datadriven framework:
In this framework, the test data is separated and kept outside the Test Scripts, while test case logic resides in Test Scripts. Test data is read from the external files ( Excel Files) and are loaded into the variables inside the Test Script. Variables are used for both for input values and for verification values.
Keyworddriven framework:
The keyword driven frameworks requires the development of data tables and keywords, independent of the test automation. In a keyword driven test, the functionality of the application under test is documented in a table as well as step by step instructions for each test.

76). What are the features of TestNG and list some of the functionality in TestNG which makes it more effective?
TestNG is a testing framework based on JUnit and NUnit to simplify a broad range of testing needs, from unit testing to integration testing. And the functionality which makes it efficient testing framework are
  • Support for annotations
  • Support for data-driven testing
  • Flexible test configuration
  • Ability to re-execute failed test cases
77). Explain how you can login into any site if it’s showing any authentication popup for password and username?
Pass the username and password with url
  • Syntax- http://username:password@url
  • ex-
78). What is the selenium’s recording language?
Selenium’s recording language is “HTML”.

79). What does it mean to be “developer focused”?
We believe that within a software application’s development team, the people who are best placed to build the tools that everyone else can use are the developers. Although it should be easy to use WebDriver directly, it should also be easy to use it as a building block for more sophisticated tools. Because of this, WebDriver has a small API that’s easy to explore by hitting the “autocomplete” button in your favorite IDE, and aims to work consistently no matter which browser implementation you use.

80). What are the steps to run automation using selenium?
The very basic steps are:
  1. Record the test steps using selenium-IDE. 
  2. Modify the script according to the testing needs. Add validation points, Java Scripts, Time-out etc. 
  3. Run the test. 
  4. View the result after test run complete analyze.

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