Monday, 19 November 2018

2019 Tips for choose best School for your Child

One of the great decisions we will make as parents in the first years of our children's lives and that can make a big difference in their future is deciding where they will spend their academic life.

Before the child is born, the choice of the school he will attend is a topic of concern for many families. The most important thing is to consider what values ​​interest you as a mother . Thus, you will not be afraid of making a mistake.

There are families for whom discipline and success are above whether the student feels good or not in a school. For others, on the other hand, humane treatment is paramount.

Considerations to choose the best school for your children

Do it as soon as possible:
Do not wait until the child has five years to decide which school you want to take him to. Even if you are not going to do the application, at least go thinking about the type of school.

There are public/gvt, private schools, free schools and there are also people who decide to educate at home by private hired teacher but it is not easy of middle or lower income family.

Public or private school:
Not everyone can consider the monthly payment of the school.

Going to a public school is in many cases a necessity. In other cases, it may be the best educational option, if you live in a good school district.

Choosing a private school because socially is better seen than a public one is a mistake we should not make.

An integrating school:
A philosophy of unification is essential. Our children live in a multicultural country and this is what their school should be like.

Although the websites of the schools transmit that they are great places, the best thing is to ask other parents.

When choosing an educational center, ask yourself if there is diversity in terms of race, ethnicity, religion, values and any other factor that is important to you.

The academic level:
We have to find out what is the educational style of the school.

Go to the open days that serve to show the school to parents. Ask all the questions you have, express your doubts and ask them to inform you about the methods they use and at what level they are with respect to other schools in your city. Ask if there are support classes. Psychologists and teachers in continuous training are an important educational pillar.

Number of students and facilities:
The number of students per class is very important so that children can be attended to normally. An overly full class is a source of stress for children and teachers.

The facilities that the school has are another factor to take into account: number of buildings, age of the same and good equipment.

The humane treatment:
Keep in mind that the human treatment of teachers towards students is equal or more important than the educational system. When your children grow up, their level of academic enthusiasm could be directly related to the personal treatment of the teachers who teach each subject. Inquire at the school and try to show that the teaching staff is trained to transmit enthusiasm and desire to learn.

That the school is close to home
Distances in the United States can be very large and we are used to it. But perhaps we should consider if the best thing for our children is to spend each day around two hours in the car in addition to school hours and thus complete a day of "work" as if they were adults.

A school near our home makes it easier for children to relate to each other outside of it and above all it will make them less tired and have more time to play or take a special class that they may have chosen.
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Tips to get a job that allows you to stay in your own home

Working from home has in recent years become a real possibility for many workers. Many factors have influenced the increase of workers at home: sometimes for reasons of saving time in traffic, other times for lack of space in the office, and other times by own choice.

The space you must create to work at home. - First of all, you should have a space at home reserved for work and even for the job search.

A separate room with a desk would be ideal. If the lack of space does not allow you to have an office in a dedicated room, you should at least assign a sacred space inside a room where nobody bothers you for long periods of time. Access to computer, internet, and telephone are the essential tools for this place.

Search by internet: Luckily, there are already several websites that offer jobs to stay at home. As an initial step, I would recommend you visit the dedicated page ( where you can find all the necessary information about the job search from home.

Separate the fraud of the real offers: With the increase in popularity of work from home, a new wave of online fraud has arrived. Winning a lot of money with little effort and without moving from home have become the ideal hook for fraudulent websites offering jobs from home.

Apply common sense to these offers- if it sounds too good to be true, it's probably fraud. Other tips to help you determine the veracity of the offer include:

  • Never pay to put your resume online or to receive job offers
  • Never give your bank account number to job seekers

  • Ask to speak with other employees of the company to obtain their points of view and verify the veracity of the offer
  • When using job vacancies such as Monster or Career Guide , use keywords such as freelance, home based, work from home, or work at home to narrow down the list of results.

Strategies to manage your time: the ideal balance. When people hear the words "work from home" almost always associated with freedom, flexibility of schedule and all the time in the world to enjoy family / friends. The reality is that for many people it is more complicated to produce results in an environment where there are no established rules. Everything depends on your personality. Without a doubt, it is advisable to create your own schedule to keep you productive. Separate the professional's family time. In any case, the use of calendars and a place without distractions are essential recommendations for any worker at home. Follow the following tips to maintain an ideal balance:

  • When the schedule you have marked for work ends, disconnect from work and attend to your family / friends
  • Ignore your emails during non-business hours
  • Assign blocks of time to check your email and do not let yourself be interrupted by every email that enters your inbox
  • Limit the time spent reading news and social networks
  • Work without distractions and without getting up during periods of 45 minutes to an hour.
  • Every hour, rest for a period between 10 and 15 minutes to refresh the mind
  • Keep a daily plan about what you are going to achieve that day and review it at the end of each day
  • Focus on one thing alone. Forget about the idea of ​​multitasking

Works that can be done without leaving your home: Luckily, if your dream is to be able to work from the comfort of your home, there are many jobs that do not require daily visits to the office. Jobs as analysts, graphic designers, accountants, writers, and many others have the flexibility to be able to play them from anywhere. If, on the contrary, your work requires visits from clients or continuous meetings with colleagues, maybe you can only do part of the work at home.

The future, technology, and the little need to leave home: Many are those who predict that the near future most jobs can be played at home. Technological advances in communication and robotics fields even make it possible for doctors to perform surgeries from their own home. Despite what the future holds for us, it is obvious that technology allows us to perform more and more tasks without having to access the tools that only existed in the buildings of companies. For example, with advances in mobile telephony, today you can answer all your emails from your phone, make video conferences, use apps for a multitude of tasks, and even read this article.

40 Quick tips for Your job Search | Best Job Search tips

If you want to change jobs quickly or start in the labor market, check the advice we provide in this note

The job search is a job in itself, since to find a job you should look at the offers day by day, send  Resume/CVs and prepare for various interviews . If this situation is maintained over time you can feel exhausted and even frustrated; so preparing your search so that a concrete opportunity arises before getting discouraged is key.

There are hundreds of strategies to find a job quickly and that is consistent with your profile, but the most important thing is that you do not lose your calm and be clear about what you want to take your next step in the professional field . If you are looking for employment today, pay attention to the following tips.
  • Know yourself as much as you can, through personal exams or continuous reflection
  • Develop a list of jobs and companies in which you would like to apply
  • Research the companies that interest you, down to the smallest detail
  • Create a persuasive message for the job you request
  •  Prepare questions and answers for the interview
  • Dress yourself up as if you had already obtained the job you want, always sinning on the conservative side
  • Treat all the people you meet in your interview in a respectful way; What's more, this is something you should do every day
  • Practice your interview a minimum of three times with people who provide objective and constructive comments
  • Act with confidence on the day of the interview, as if you do not need the job
  • Look into the eyes of the interviewer when you greet
  • Keep an active posture during the interview, even imitating in some way the poses of your interlocutor
  • Update your profile on LinkedIn
  • Get ten of recommendation letters on LinkedIn
  • Offer solutions before asking for anything in return
  • Leave salary negotiations for after the interview
  • Make it easy for the interviewer
  • Discover the specific problems that the company faces
  • Check your online presence, protecting your reputation
  • Focus on a limited number of companies, to devote the necessary research time
  • Complete a personal SWOT analysis (weaknesses, threats, strengths , opportunities)
  • Find a mentor for your job search and, if possible, keep it for the rest of your career
  • Create an online profile that reflects your virtues, finished projects, problems you have solved, through a personal web page
  • Always think about the problem that you, the candidate, are going to solve, and not what the work is going to bring to you
  • Find out if your profile fits with the corporate culture; remember that it will be a place where you will spend most of your days
  • Visit pages like Glassdoor to discover the opinions of others who have gone through the interview process
  • Talk about your former boss and colleagues in positive and constructive terms
  • The curriculum should convey potential to help the company
  • The curriculum should be free of errors of any kind, an easy excuse to remove it from the list of candidates
  • Write a personalized cover letter for each job advertisement
  • Your network of contacts should know that you are looking for a job, as they can always provide help
  • Always say a little less than necessary
  • Make recruiters come to your search
  • Emanates more positive energy than negative
  • Present your candlestick to your contacts as an opportunity for them
  • Present a specific plan about what you would do the first 60 days in your new job
  • Shows interest in work, without seeming desperate
  • Act the way you want to be treated
  • Write your cover letter as a sales message
  • Listen carefully to the motivations of the interviewer
  • Have the interviewer reveal information
  • Find out if your position is valued only economically or in the form of results
  • Move, if possible, to where there is a labor conglomeration in your field

What are your skills? Interview Question Best Answers

Questions about your skills are one of the most common in any job interview. In fact, many of the interviewers focus on discovering how you, the candidate for employment, with your skills and competencies, can benefit the company. To answer them, we must mix the necessary confidence to "sell ourselves" with enough humility to not be arrogant.

What relevant experience do you have for this job? You have to demonstrate readiness to be able to answer this type of question.

The important thing is connecting the details of the job announcement with your work experience. The more details you use, the better. And do not try to exaggerate (or lie) about your experience since it is easy to call one of your references to corroborate data.

How would you describe yourself? Although it is an obvious and easy to answer question, it really is not. If you have not stopped to think about this question before, you will appear to be poorly prepared for the tasks demanded by the job. Apart from honesty, the important thing is to find the ideal connection between you and the work in question. If you are a creative person (among many other things) and you are a candidate for a creative position, highlight that facet clearly.

How would you describe your work style? This question aims to discover if you are slow at work, very fast, or if you maintain a constant speed in your work.
Not always the fastest will get the job. Many employers prefer candidates who work at a constant speed and who meet project dates. Elaborate a bit about your ability to manage your time and how you do to carry several projects at the same time.

How do you deal with stress at work? Stress has become a component of every job and interviewers want to know how you handle stress at a professional level.

Before the interview, do an auto-analysis to determine your reactions to stress. There are many answers you can give. Some positives include: "I get along well in stressful situations and use that energy to raise my results." Another answer could be: "I usually accumulate stress during the workday but I burn it all in the gym at night to get cool back to work the next morning". Whatever the answer, try to include some specific example of how you have handled stress in the past.

What motivates you? Definitely, there is no simple answer to this question. But you must be prepared to answer it. You can emphasize your motivations and specific examples. Many people are motivated simply by money, others by a positive work environment, and others by the possibility of learning new things. Be honest and specific in your answer.

What kind of work environment do you prefer? The interviewer will try to discover if there is a connection between your style and the workplace. If your ideal environment is relaxed with the freedom of a flexible schedule, present that style in a positive way with a focus on increasing productivity.

  Unless you intend to radically change your style, it would be a good idea to discover if there really is a connection between your style and the company's before you start working. Example of response: "I develop better in a rigid environment with established schedules and with well-established objectives, my work style is organized, meticulous, and detailed, I like to have everything well planned".

What are your passions? Prepare to share some of your passions. You do not have to enter into very personal passions but you can find those that can be translated into professional situations. For example, "I am passionate about helping others, and on Saturday mornings I am a volunteer with a group that helps disadvantaged people in our community, and I believe that this work also has a component that helps others.

Thanks to the services that this company provides, many people can ....".

How can you contribute to this company? The company has some ideas about what the candidate should contribute (specified in the job announcement) and you may have some other ideas on how to contribute to the company. This is the time to present some of your ideas to demonstrate not only your qualifications but also an interest in the future of the company.

Why do you want to work here? Honestly, he finds something positive about the job that makes him attractive. Try to look beyond the salary.

What challenges do you like to find in a job? All work presents challenges. Some more bearable than others. In any case, motivated people often find these challenges an extra motivation. What challenges motivate you the most? Present them in a positive way so that the company has a better idea of ​​your fit in the work.

Why are you the ideal candidate for this job? Here you have to sell as the best "product". The company received a thousand resumes for the position and you are among the three finalists. Do not underestimate yourself and honestly present the reason why you think you are the ideal candidate. Joining the job announcement with your specific skills will increase your chances of becoming the ideal candidate.

Friday, 24 August 2018

SSIS Interview Questions And Answers for beginner and experienced

  1. What is MSBI ?

        MSBI stands for Microsoft Business Intelligence MSBI (Microsoft Business Intelligence) is one of the ETL tool related to the database side. MSBI is composed of tools which helps in providing best solutions for Business Intelligence and Data Mining Queries.

    MSBI is divided into 3 categories:-

  • SSIS – SQL Server Integration Services – Integration tool.
  • SSAS – SQL Server Analytical Services -Analysis tool.
  • SSRS – SQL Server Reporting Services – Reporting tool

  1. SSIS– This tool is used for the integration like duping the data from one database to another like from Oracle to SQL Server or from Excel to SQL Server etc.
    This tool is also used for bulk transactions in the database like inserting lac's of records at once. We can create the integration services modules which will do the job foe us.
  2. SSAS– This tool is used to analyse the performance of the SQL server in terms of load balancing, heavy data, transaction etc. So it is more or less related to administration of the SQL Server using this tool. This is very powerful tool and through this we can analyse the data inserting in to the database like how many transactions happens in a second etc.
  3. SSRS– This tool is related to the generation of report. This is very efficient tool as it is platform independent. We can generate the report using this tool and can use in any type of applications. Now a days this is very popular in the market.

Q. What is SSIS variable?

Variables store values that a SQL Server Integration Services package and its containers, tasks, and event handlers can use at run time.

In SSIS two variables are defined
  • Global variables:- A global variable is available to all tasks across the entire job. 
  • Task level variables: - Variables created in tasks are only available within that task.

Q. What is SSIS Control flow?

SSIS control flow allows you to program graphically how the tasks will run by using the logical connectors between tasks.

There are three basic logical connectors that you can use:
  • Success 
  • Failure 
  • Complete

Q. What is precedence constraint?

In SSIS, tasks are linked by precedence constraints. A task will only execute if the condition that is set by the precedence constraint preceding the task is met.

The control flow in a SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) package defines the workflow for that package. Not only does the control flow determine the order in which executable will run, the control flow also determines under what conditions they’re executed.

  • Success: The precedence executable must run successfully for the constrained executable to run. This is the default value. The precedence constraint is set to green when the Success option is selected. 
  • Failure: The precedence executable must fail for the constrained executable to run. The precedence constraint is set to red when the Failure option is selected. 
  • Completion: The constrained executable will run after the precedence executable runs, whether the precedence executable runs successfully or whether it fails. The precedence constraint is set to blue when the Completion option is selected.

Q. Defined the different type of containers in SSIS packages

In SSIS there are three type of Container:-


1. Sequence Container: - Sequence container defines the control flow that is subset of package control flow. Sequence containers group the package into multiple separate control flows, each containing one or more tasks and containers that run within the overall package control flow.

Advantage: -

· Disable the property of sequence container instead of on the individual tasks.

· Change the property of sequence container instead of on the individual tasks.

· Providing scope for variables that a group of related tasks and containers use.

2. For Loop container: - It’s define the repeated control flow in a package. It’s working like loop in programming languages. In each repeated loop for each loop evaluate the expression until the expression is false. Example, you need to update records 5 times, you can place the task that updates the records inside this for loop container and specifies 5 as the end of the loops by using the for loop container.


For loop Properties:-

  • InitExpression:- Optionally, provide an expression that initializes values used by the loop. 
  • EvalExpression:- Provide an expression to evaluate whether the loop should stop or continue. 
  • AssignExpression:- Optionally, provide an expression that changes a condition each time that the loop repeats. 
  • Name:- Provide a unique name for the For Loop container. This name is used as the label in the task icon. 
  • Description:- Provide a description of the For Loop container. 

3. Foreach loop container

It’s defines a repeating control flow in a package. Foreach loop implementation is similar as programming languages. In a package, looping is enabled by using a Foreach enumerator. The Foreach Loop container repeats the control flow for each member of a specified enumerator.

SSIS provides these following enumerator types:

  • ForEach File Enumerator 
  • Foreach Item Enumerator 
  • Foreach ADO Enumerator 
  • Foreach ADO.NET Schema Rowset Enumerator 
  • Foreach From Variable Enumerator 
  • Foreach NodeList Enumerator 
  • Foreach SMO Enumerator

Saturday, 5 May 2018

New 2018-19 McDonald's Interview Questions Answers

Are you one of those children who always want to work at McDonald's? Are you looking for work and you see that McDonald's can be your great opportunity? Do you have an interview with them and do not know where to start? Today is your lucky day. I want to confess some of the best kept secrets to overcome your next interview at McDonald's.

Go for it!

Before going to the interview, learn well about the company, because as it is very recognized and is very integrated into our lives it is easy for everyone to say the same things about it, so take a step further and take advantage of this advantage.

Find something that you can say that is positive, original, different ... That makes you stand out!

Well dressed and with good presence: Do not go formal , but with a good image. It is possible to end up working facing the direct public (cashier, store assistant) or indirectly (kitchen, manager).
Come early: If you arrive late, they will think that you have no interest and that you are a disorganized person, but if you arrive very soon, you will seem impatient, restless, anxious ... Ideally, you should arrive between 10 and 5 minutes early.
Pay attention to the smells! Be well groomed, do not get into a race because you are late before entering. You will throw everything away! Avoid smoking and drinking coffee before entering.

Analyze how they work at Mcdonald's: In front of the public, as a team, under pressure, in turns ... If you want to work here, be able to work according to your philosophy and work rate .

Highlight what skills you have that fit your operation.

Now, we begin! These are the most common questions in the selection process:

I want to work at Mcdonald's because it is an international company that offers me the possibility to train and be part of a multidisciplinary team. In addition, it gives me security the fact of being a great company, not only at work level, but also in quality and management of all processes.

Yes, working face to face with the public helps make the experience more rewarding, working in contact with other people offers extra human value.

It is important that you emphasize your ability to work as a team, your energy, flexibility, positive attitude ... and that you face without fear the changing situations.

Show yourself as a person that cooperates, that helps others, that you never stop ... At Mcdonald's they value that you move and that, if you have nothing to do, help others to get the job done, even if you do not have to see with your functions.

He talks about how enriching it is to work as a team, that each contribution is important to achieve common goals, that you listen to others, that you know how to negotiate and reach agreements.

What are you busy? You should analyse the importance of what you are doing at this moment and if it is not more important, take care of the food in poor condition yourself, do you have someone nearby who can take care of it? Tell him to take charge. If you can tell a manager better than better, but if not, to a partner. In any case, you will have to tell the person in charge, even if it is later.

No, unless it is absolutely essential to solve a problem.

Serving food has given me extensive experience facing the public and solving problems with customers on a daily basis. In addition, this experience will make me more willing to take care of the store when necessary.

The questions of the weaknesses formulated in another way ... "I am too demanding and that makes me add more pressure than necessary ..."

I would not have any problem. At first I may not have as much ease as in my own position, but I learn quickly and then I would perform them as if they were my own functions.

(Do not show fear, or rejection, they are not telling you what's going to happen, they just want to see your capacity for learning and adopting changes, flexibility and facing challenges)

First: Listen to what the complaint is!
Second Can I solve it? I'll do it!
Third: Can not I solve it? I bring it to the attention of my superiors.
And above all, stay calm and sure of yourself. luck!

How Prepare for face 5 most common types of interview questions

Prepare for the questions that recruiters will ask you and give an effective response.
From the interview we expect a professional conversation, focused mainly on our skills and achievements, however, sometimes the recruiter will look for 'something else' about us with questions that may not be directly related to employment.

For many candidates some interview questions do not have a logical reason, they can even be absurd or uncomfortable, so we must be prepared and anticipate to respond with intelligence.

Prepare to face the 5 most common types of interview questions:
1. Open: They are general questions that seek to flow the dialogue between the interviewer and the candidate, allow the person a broad response. With them your fluency, communication skills and coherence will be evaluated.

Example: Tell me about yourself, why were you interested in the vacancy? Why did you decide to study (insert career)? What do you like most about your work?

Tip: It is possible to prepare in advance to answer these types of questions, since they are very common. It is important to find a balance in our speech to express ourselves with ease without giving very long answers. Concentrate on the most meaningful and relevant information.

2. Fitness: Its objective is to evaluate if the candidate has the necessary knowledge to perform the job. Depending on the vacancy, the recruiter will inquire about the candidate's experience and the competencies he or she has.

Example: What were the main functions you performed in your previous job? , Tell me what knowledge and skills prepare you for the position, I see that you have advanced knowledge in (insert skill / knowledge) in what kind of activities have you applied the last 3 years?

Tip: Probably a lot of this information is contained in your Curriculum, however the recruiter will want to have a bigger picture. Using specific examples can help you clearly show why you meet the expectations of the position.

3. Behavior: When making a contract, it is not only important that the candidate can do the job. The behavioral questions seek to find out what the person's behavioral profile is, to assess whether they can successfully integrate into the work team.

Example: How do you handle stress ?, Give me an example in your work life in which you have shown integrity, Tell me about a time when you made a mistake in your work, how did you solve it?

Tip: Anticipate this type of questions by analyzing how your behavior at work is, what are your strengths and what are your areas of opportunity. Prepare yourself with clear examples of scenarios typical of the work environment such as stress, pressure, decision making, labor conflicts, etc.

4. Situational: Once the interviewer analyzes your behavior in the past you can resort to situational questions to get an idea of ​​what your future behaviors will be.

Example: How do you respond to pressure? Imagine that you have X problem at work, how would you solve it? What would you do if your boss delivers a report with erroneous figures in a work meeting?

Tip: For situational questions there is not a single correct answer, it will reveal our ability to solve problems and adapt to different situations. A good practice is to think about a similar experience that you have lived and talk about how you used your skills to face it.

5. Capciosas: It may seem absurd or incoherent questions, but depending on the recruiter, the company and the position, you may have to answer questions that seem to leave the work context. Its purpose is to move the candidate a little away from standard questions and subject him to a mental challenge that reveals a little more about his personality.

Example: If you could be an animal, what would you be? What color is there more objects in your bedroom? What would you prefer? Being the number 1 employee but hated by your colleagues or number 15 but appreciated by all?

Tip: With these questions the recruiter expects an honest and spontaneous answer, remember that there are no correct answers, since they are linked to your personality.

* Inappropriate Questions
It is common for candidates to face misplaced questions, which can be discriminatory and offensive. For example, are you pregnant? What contraceptive method do you use? What is your sexual orientation? Why are not you married? Are you religious / religious?

Friday, 23 March 2018

IBM Announced MAX - Model Asset eXchange: an App Store for Machine Learning Models

Over at the IBM Blog, Dr. Angel Diaz writes that the company has just launched the Model Asset eXchange. MAX is effectively an App Store for free Machine Learning models to help developers and data scientists easily discover, rate and deploy AI.

IBM states on the official blog--
We are excited to announce one of the first initiatives in this space — an open source enterprise Model Asset eXchange, or “MAX”. MAX is a models app store that aims to ignite a community of data scientists and AI developers, enabling them to easily discover, rate, and deploy machine learning models. MAX is a one-stop exchange for data scientists and AI developers to consume models created using their favorite machine learning engines, like TensorFlow, PyTorch, and Caffe2, and provides a standardized approach to classify, annotate, and deploy these models for prediction and inferencing, including an increasing number of models that can be deployed and customized in IBM’s recently announce AI application development platform, Watson Studio.

This message is very much echoed by Jim Zemlin, Executive Director of The Linux Foundation. “IBM’s release of Model Asset eXchange gives developers a new source for deep learning models. We look forward to seeing the innovation unlocked from the MAX community through collaboration with our forthcoming Acumos AI community.”

WhatsApp will debut on JioPhone: Tech News

WhatsApp has been continuously bringing new features to its users on both Android and iOS platforms over the past few weeks. Now WhatsApp is possibly working to bring its real-time messenger app to the emerging KaiOS. The proof of that has been found on one of the latest WhatsApp beta versions for Windows Phone, which suggests that new platforms could soon be utilising WhatsApp servers.
That new platform is expected to be KaiOS, which has recently got Facebook’s native app for the JioPhone. The JioPhone utilises KaiOS as its operating system and supports 4G VoLTE services along with support for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. It’s not yet known whether WhatsApp could be coming with a majority of its features on the platform or be simply limited to basic messaging service. However, with Facebook already available on the JioPhone, the availability of WhatsApp on the feature phone could give a boost to the JioPhone’s sales and could find favour with more users looking to simplify their phone usage.

Microsoft Blazor 0.1.0 Released

Microsoft has recently released the first public preview of a new .NET web framework, Blazor. This new .NET web framework uses C#/Razor and HTML using the browser with WebAssembly. Blazor enables the full stack web development with the productivity of .NET but, as this is an alpha version it should not be used in production.

Microsoft states in the official blog –
“In this release, we've laid the groundwork for the Blazor component model and added other foundational features, like routing, dependency injection, and JavaScript interop. We've also been working on the tooling experience so that you get great Intelli-Sense and completions in the Razor editor. Other features that have been demonstrated previously in prototype form, like live reload, debugging, and prerendering, have not been implemented yet, but are planned for future preview updates. Even so, there is plenty in this release for folks to start kicking the tires and giving feedback on the current direction.”

What makes you happy about working on a Friday evening?

Weekends is the only reasons which makes person happy about working on a Friday evening. It is totally to discuss it because taking break from work is your right. So honestly you can discuss your points and views with your interviewer.

Sunday, 4 March 2018

Machine Learning Interview Questions Answers: Scope of Machine Learning

Many of us believe that machine learning is a very futuristic thing. However, it is increasingly present in our lives, whether when a Google computer plays an incredible game of Go, or when Gmail generates automatic responses. While all this sounds exciting, many of us continue to wonder what machine learning exactly consists of, why it is so important or why identifying a dog in a photo is not as simple as it seems. In order to analyze all this, we have met with Maya Gupta, a researcher at Google in this field.

Let's start with the simplest: what exactly is machine learning?
It is the process of machine learning that takes a set of examples, discovers the patterns behind them and uses them to make predictions about new examples.

Think, for example, about movie recommendations. Let's suppose that a billion people tell us their ten favorite movies. That would be the set of examples that the computer can use to discover which movies are common among that group of people. Next, the computer elaborates patterns to explain those examples, such as "People who like horror movies do not like romantic ones, but they do like movies in which the same actors appear". Therefore, if you tell the computer that you like The Shining of Jack Nicholson, you can deduce if you also like romantic comedy.

We understand it or almost. However, how does this translate into practice?
In practice, the patterns that the machine learns can be very complex and difficult to explain with words. Let's use Google Photos as an example, which allows you to search your photos for pictures of dogs. How does Google do it? Well, first, we use a set of examples of photos labeled "dog" (thanks to the Internet). We also use a set of photos labeled "cat", as well as photos with millions of different labels, but I will not list them all here.

Next, the computer looks for patterns of pixels and patterns of colors that help you to find out if it is a cat, a dog or anything else. First, he makes a random estimate of the patterns that might be adequate to identify dogs. Then examine an example of an image of a dog and see if its patterns fit correctly. If you check that a cat is mistakenly called a cat, make some adjustments to the patterns used. Then examine the image of a cat and refine its patterns to try to get the most accurate. This process is repeated about a billion times: it examines an example and, if the pattern is not correct, it changes it to improve the result of it.

In the end, the patterns constitute a model of machine learning, as if it were a deep neural network that can (almost) correctly identify dogs, cats, firemen and many other things.

That sounds very futuristic. What other Google products currently use machine learning?
Google is using machine learning in many new projects, such as Google Translate, which can take a picture of a signage sign or restaurant menu in a language, discover the words and language that appear in the photo, and translate them by magic and in real time to your language.

You can also send almost any voice message to Google Translate and speech recognition can be processed by machine learning. Speech recognition technology is used in other Google products, for example, to make voice queries in the Google application or to search for videos more easily on YouTube.

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Machine learning is the same as artificial intelligence?
Although in reality the meaning of these concepts can vary according to people, artificial intelligence (AI) is basically a broad term that refers to software that tries to solve problems that are simple for humans, such as describing what happens in an image. One of the most incredible things that humans do with ease is to learn from the examples. This is what machine learning programs are trying to do: teaching computers how to learn from examples.

The best thing is that when we discovered how to develop these software, we can expand this knowledge to handle data very quickly and solve really complex problems such as, for example, play as an expert to the Go, tell the way to all users so Simultaneously, optimize energy consumption nationwide and, my favorite, find the best results in the Google search engine.

So, why is Google now giving so much importance to machine learning?
Machine learning is not something new, since it goes back to the eighteenth century statistics, but it is true that lately it is booming and this is due to three reasons that I will explain below.

The first one is that we need an immense amount of examples to teach computers how to make good predictions, even about things that you and I consider easy (like finding a dog in a photo). With all the activity on the Internet, we now have a broader source of examples that computers can use. For example, there are now millions of pictures of dogs with the "dog" tag on websites around the world and in all languages.

But it is not enough to have many examples. You can not simply show a bunch of dog photos to a webcam and expect him to learn everything; the computer needs a learning program. In fact, lately the sector (and also Google) has made important advances in terms of the complexity and power that these learning programs can have.

However, our programs are still not perfect and computers are still not very intelligent, so we have to see many examples numerous times to change the digital controls and get accurate results. Although this requires enormous processing capacity, new advances in software and hardware have also made this possible.

Is there something that computers can not do today but what can they do in the future thanks to machine learning?
Until now, the voice recognition tried to detect only ten different digits when you said your credit card number by phone. Voice recognition has achieved incredible advances in the last five years with the use of machine learning, and now we can use it to search Google and every time more quickly.

I think machine learning can also help us improve our appearance. I do not know about you, but I hate to try on clothes. If I find a jeans brand that suits me, I buy five. Well, machine learning can convert examples of brands that we feel good into recommendations of other clothes that could equally well fit. This is out of Google's reach, but I hope someone is investigating it.

What will machine learning be like in ten years?
The sector is currently working to achieve faster learning from fewer examples. One way to address this (something that Google is emphasizing) is to provide our machines with more common sense, what in the sector is called "regularization".

What is common sense for a machine?
In general, it means that if an example changes only a little, the machine should not omit it. That is, a picture of a dog wearing a cowboy hat is still a dog.

We impose this kind of common sense when we get that machine learning is able to obviate small and insignificant changes, like a cowboy hat. Although this seems easy to say, if we make a mistake, it is possible that a machine does not detect important changes well. It is about reaching a balance and we are still working to achieve it.

For you, what is the most exciting thing about machine learning? What motivates you to work with him?
I grew up in Seattle, where we learned a lot about the first explorers in the Western United States, such as Lewis and Clark. Machine learning has that same spirit of exploration, since we discover things for the first time and try to trace a path towards a great future.

If you could put a slogan to Google's machine learning, what would it be?
If you do not get it first, try a billion times more.

Thursday, 21 December 2017


(most important interview question)

Gluon AWS/Microsoft:
Gluon is a new open source deep learning interface launched by AWS and Microsoft(12 Oct 2017) which allows developers to more easily and quickly build machine learning models, without compromising performance.
Gluon can be used with either Apache MXNet or Microsoft Cognitive Toolkit, and will be supported in all Azure services, tools and infrastructure. Gluon offers an easy-to-use interface for developers, highly-scalable training, and efficient model evaluation–all without sacrificing flexibility for more experienced researchers. For companies, data scientists and developers Gluon offers simplicity without compromise through  high-level APIs and pre-build/modular building blocks, and more accessible deep learning.

Gluon makes it easy for developers to learn, define, debug and then iterate or maintain deep neural networks, allowing developers to build and train their networks quickly. Gluon introduces four key innovations. 
  • Simple, Easy-to-Understand Code: Gluon is a more concise, easy-to-understand programming interface compared to other offerings, and that it gives developers a chance to quickly prototype and experiment with neural network models without sacrificing performance. Gluon offers a full set of plug-and-play neural network building blocks, including predefined layers, optimizers, and initializers.
  • Flexible, Imperative Structure: Gluon does not require the neural network model to be rigidly defined, but rather brings the training algorithm and model closer together to provide flexibility in the development process.
  • Dynamic Graphs: Gluon enables developers to define neural network models that are dynamic, meaning they can be built on the fly, with any structure, and using any of Python’s native control flow.
  • High Performance: Gluon provides all of the above benefits without impacting the training speed that the underlying engine provides.

TensorFlow Google:
TensorFlow is an open source software library for numerical computation using data flow graphs. It was developed by the Google Brain team for internal Google use. It was released under the Apache 2.0 open source license on November 9, 2015.
Nodes in the graph represent mathematical operations, while the graph edges represent the multidimensional data arrays (tensors) communicated between them. The flexible architecture allows you to deploy computation to one or more CPUs or GPUs in a desktop, server, or mobile device with a single API. TensorFlow was originally developed by researchers and engineers working on the Google Brain Team within Google's Machine Intelligence research organization for the purposes of conducting machine learning and deep neural networks research, but the system is general enough to be applicable in a wide variety of other domains as well. Below are the key features of TensorFlow.
  • Flexibility: You need to express your computation as a data flow graph to use TensorFlow. It is a highly flexible system which provides multiple models or multiple versions of the same model can be served simultaneously. The architecture of TensorFlow is highly modular, which means you can use some parts individually or can use all the parts together. Such flexibility facilitates non-automatic migration to new models/versions, A/B testing experimental models, and canarying new models.
  • Portability: TensorFlow has made it possible to play around an idea on your laptop without having any other hardware support. It runs on GPUs, CPUs, desktops, servers, and mobile computing platforms. You can deploy a trained model on your mobile as a part of your product, and that’s how it serves as a true portability feature.
  • Auto Differentiation: It has automatic differentiation capabilities which benefits gradient based machine learning algorithms. You can define the computational architecture of your predictive model, combine it with your objective function and add data to it- TensorFlow manages derivatives computing processes automatically. You can compute the derivatives of some values with respect to some other values results in graph extension and you can see exactly what’s happening.
  • Performance: TensorFlow allows you to make the most of your available hardware with its advanced support for threads, asynchronous computation, and queues. Just assign compute elements of your TensorFlow graph to different devices and let it manage the copies itself. It also facilitates you with the language options to execute your computational graph. TensorFlow iPython notebook helps in keeping codes, notes, and visualization in a logically grouped and interactive style.
  • Research and Production: It can be used to train and serve models in live mode to real customers. To put it simply, rewriting codes is not required and the industrial researchers can apply their ideas to products faster. Also, academic researchers can share codes directly with greater reproducibility. In this way it helps to carry out research and production processes faster.

Saturday, 16 December 2017

PyTorch Interview Questions Answers

What is PyTorch?
PyTorch is a relatively new deep learning framework that is fast becoming popular among researchers. Like Chainer, PyTorch supports dynamic computation graphs, a feature that makes it attractive to researchers and engineers who work with text and time-series.
PyTorch provides two high-level features:
  • Tensor computation (like numpy) with strong GPU acceleration
  • Deep Neural Networks built on a tape-based autograd system
We will come with more interview questions soon.

Top 20 Google TensorFlow Interview Questions Answers

As you know now technology moving towards Machine learning/Deep learning so if you are making career in it then your future is bright, you will got very high package :). Here we come with Google TensorFlow interview questions, our previous article "100 Machine learning Interview Q-A" was become very famous so must go through it.
Future of TensorFlow: TensorFlow future bright , TensorFlow is growing fast, especially when someone like Google create such thing, its likely to be big, one of the reason is because they are using in their own products which encourages others to use it also.

So lets start with TensorFlow Interview Questions.

What is TensorFlow?
TensorFlow is a Python library for fast numerical computing created and released by Google.
It is a foundation library that can be used to create Deep Learning models directly or by using wrapper libraries that simplify the process built on top of TensorFlow.
Unlike other numerical libraries intended for use in Deep Learning like Theano, TensorFlow was designed for use both in research and development and in production systems.
It can run on single CPU systems, GPUs as well as mobile devices and large scale distributed systems of hundreds of machines. Answer credit goest to : Jason Brownlee

What is necessary to evaluate any formulas in Tensorflow?
with tf.Session() as sess:

How do you sum the whole array into one number in tensorflow?
tf.reduce_sum(array) or tf.reduce_sum(x, [0, 1])

What programming language is it for?
The API is nominally for the Python programming language, although there is access to the underlying C++ API.

What do you understand by Tensor and Flow in case of Tensorflow?
  • Multi dimensional array - e.g., scalar, vector, matrix, cube
  • A graph that defines operations like + to do with data (tensors). 
  • A lot like numpy
  • Fast Math with tensors
What is nodes?
Nodes perform computation and have zero or more inputs and outputs. Data that moves between nodes are known as tensors, which are multi-dimensional arrays of real values.

What is edges?
The graph defines the flow of data, branching, looping and updates to state. Special edges can be used to synchronize behavior within the graph, for example waiting for computation on a number of inputs to complete.

What is the purpose of tf.Session?
It provides a class for running Tensorflow objects. It encapsulates the environment in which Operation objects are executed and Tensor objects are evaluated.
with tf.Session as sess:
(context manager)
sess = tf.Session()
which then requires

What happens when you create a variable?
You pass a tensor into the Variable() constructor. You must specify the shape of the tensor which becomes the shape of the variable. Variables generally have fixed shape.

When you will use tf.get_variable()?
Sometimes you have large sets of variables in complex models that you want to all initialize in the same place.

What does tf.get_variable() do?
It creates or returns a variable with a given name instead of a direct call to tf.Variable(). It uses an initializer instead of calling tf.Variable directly

What does the softmax cross entropy function do?
Measures the probability error in discrete classification tasks in which the classes are mutually exclusive (each entry is in exactly one class).

Friday, 8 December 2017

TCS NEXTSTEP 2018 Off Campus Drive Eligibility Criteria and Application Process Step by Step


Good news in this post is that we have covered every step with prient screen for apply in TCS off campus drive process. We have also shown instruction of every registration and application pages, marked by TCS for 2018. So read this post till end you will enjoy step by step registration and application form process. 
if you have already registed/applied then you can see and read latest form for application for 2018 and check that is this different from your application form or not. This is the latest application form look in

The TCS Eligibility Criteria for an entry level position, is as follows:

  • Engineering students scheduled to graduate in the year 2018 are eligible to apply.
  • BE / B.Tech / ME / M.Tech in any Disciplines.
  • MCA with BSc / BCA / BCom / BA (with Math / Statistics Background).
  • M.Sc in Computer Science / Information Technology.
Marks Criteria:
  • Minimum aggregate (aggregate of all subjects in all semesters) marks of 60% or above in the first attempt in each of your Class Xth, Class XIIth, Diploma (if applicable), Graduation and Post-Graduation examination which includes successful completion of your final year/semester examination without any pending arrears/back logs during the entire course duration. Please note that all subjects mentioned on the mark sheets should be taken into consideration while calculating the aggregate marks. For example, best of 5/6 subjects for calculating the aggregate is not acceptable as per the TCS Eligibility Criteria.
  • First attempt implies that you should pass the final year/semester examination (Xth, XIIh, Diploma, Graduation and Post-Graduation as applicable) with minimum aggregate (aggregate of all subjects in all semesters) marks of 60% and above within the first attempt itself. For example, if you have secured 58.9 % (aggregate of all subjects) in your Standard XIIth examination and you have taken an improvement exam in the next attempt securing 62 %, you are not eligible as per the TCS Eligibility Criteria, as improvement exam is not considered as first attempt.
  • Completion of all courses Class Xth onwards within the stipulated time as specified by your University/Institute without any extended education.
Gaps-Break Criteria:
  • It is mandatory to declare the gaps/arrears/backlogs, if any, during your academic and work experience. Break in education should not be due to extended education. Any break in education should not exceed 24 months.
  • Only Full time courses will be considered.
Age Criteria:
  • You should be minimum 18 years of age to be eligible to apply for the TCS Selection process.
Re-apply Criteria:
  • Candidates who have applied to TCS and have not been successful in clearing the TCSL selection process are not eligible to re-apply to TCS within six months from the date on which they had attended such selection test and/or interview. You are not eligible to appear for the TCS selection process within six months of the previous unsuccessful attempt.
How do a Fresher can apply for an entry level position in TCS? 
To apply for an entry level position:(click on images in zoom in)

STEP 1: Register
  • Visit
  • Click “Register Now”

  • Now select category as IT.

  • You will be redirected to the TCS Registration form. Now fill it and click on submit button.

  • After submit below popup will appear. Now verify your mobile no and email address.
  • Now below window will appear, So note-down your reference no. And click Continue.
  • Now password prompt will appear.
  • Now be happy you have registered and redirected to home page will login.
Below is the welcome message from TCS, read it carefully.

"Welcome aboard on TCS NextStep portal! 

TCS NextStep Portal is the first step connecting you with TCS, Asia's leading IT services Company. A single platform that addresses all your needs interactively and simplifies the communication process, this Portal will help you in your transition from being a student on campus to exploring a dynamic career path with TCS. 

From keeping you updated on TCS initiatives to answering your queries and helping you explore a world of opportunities, TCS NextStep helps bridge the distance in your journey to becoming a TCSer. 

So, go ahead! Explore opportunities. Experience Certainty."


Now you can apply.

STEP 2: Apply

  • Click on Application 
  • Now application page will appear with Important information, Before click "Start filling the Form" button must read it. Below are the instruction. And click "Start filling the Form"
"1). The form is divided into following four sections. It is mandatory to enter details in all four sections.
                Personal Detail
                Academic and Work Experience Details
                Other Details
                Form preview and declaration

2). Fields marked with "*" in these sections are mandatory.

3). To save the details and navigate to the next field/screen, click 'Save and Continue'.

4). To submit the form, click 'Submit Application Form' in 'Form Preview and Declaration' section.

5). Please review the details properly before submitting the form to avoid errors.You can use the Application Form preview feature after filling in all the mandatory fields. In case you wish to edit any details, you can navigate to the relevant section and edit the same.

6). Click 'Save' after editing any details in the form. To submit the form with the updated details, click 'Submit Application Form'. Please note that if you do not submit the form after editing any details, the details will not be saved."
  • Now four tab will appear, fill detail in all four tab, below are the screen-shots of all tabs.

Academic Instructions :
  1. "Marks/CGPA Obtained" denotes Total Marks/CGPA secured by you in ALL* subjects in all semesters in the first attempt.
  2. "Total Marks/CGPA" denotes total of maximum marks in ALL* subjects in all semesters in the first attempt. *ALL implies that all subjects mentioned on the marksheet (including languages, optional subjects etc) should be taken into consideration for calculating the obtained/total marks/CGPA.
  3. Marks/CGPA obtained during the normal duration of the course only will be considered to decide on the eligibility.
  4. Verify your marks after entering, as it is a part of the selection criteria.
  5. Please mention only your XII duration in XII Grade details . Pls do not add the XI duration in the same.

  • Now this is the last button :) click "Submit Application Form" button and be happy....
  • Below are the TCS Terms and Conditions which you can read before click "Submit Application Form"

TCS Terms and Conditions
In connection with my application to render services to Tata Consultancy Services Ltd (the "Company"), I hereby agree as follows: I certify that the information furnished in this form as well as in all other forms filled-in by me in conjunction with my traineeship is factually correct and subject to verification by TCS including Reference Check and Background Verification.
I accept that an appointment given to me on this basis can be revoked and/ or terminated without any notice at any time in future if any information has been found to be false, misleading, deliberately omitted/ suppressed.

As a condition of Company's consideration of my application for traineeship with the Company, I hereby give my consent to the Company to investigate or cause to be investigated through any third parties my personal, educational and pre or post joining history. I understand that the background investigation will include, but not be limited to, verification of all information given by me to the Company. I confirm that the Company is entitled to share such investigation report with its clients to the extent necessary in connection with the Services, which I may be required to provide to such clients. I confirm and undertake that the Company shall incur no liability or obligation of any nature whatsoever resulting from such investigation or sharing of the investigation results as above. I certify that I am at present in sound mental and physical condition to undertake employment with TCS. I also declare that there is no criminal case filed against me or pending against me in any Court of law in India or abroad and no restrictions are placed on my travelling anywhere in India or abroad for the purpose of business of the company.

Best of luck..

Friday, 1 December 2017

SQL Server 2017 Interview Questions with Answers

Here we come with latest SQL Server interview questions which is related to latest SQL Server 2017 thats why all questions are also latest if you are looking for latest then this is the place. :)

Lets check your knowledge..

What do you understand by Adapative query processing launched in SQL Server 2017?
SQL Server 2017 and Azure SQL Database introduce a new generation of query processing improvements that will adapt optimization strategies to your application workload’s runtime conditions.

Name all three Adaptive query processing features?
In SQL Server 2017 and Azure SQL Database there are three adaptive query processing features by which you can improve your query performance:
Batch mode memory grant feedback.
Batch mode adaptive join.
Interleaved execution.

Write T-SQL statement to enable adaptive query processing?
You can make workloads automatically eligible for adaptive query processing by enabling compatibility level 140 for the database. You can set this using Transact-SQL. For example:

Name the new string function which is very useful to generate csv file from a table?
CONCAT_WS is new function launched in SQL Server 2017 its takes a variable number of arguments and concatenates them into a single string using the first argument as separator. It requires a separator and a minimum of two arguments.
It is very helpful in generate comma or pipe seprated csv file content.

What do you understand  by TRANSLATE in SQL Sever 2017?
TRANSLATE is a new string function launched in SQL Server 2017, It is very helpful to replace multiple character with multiple character respectively. It will return an error if characters and translations have different lengths.
In below example we are using traditional REPLACE function, and for same task we will use TRANSLATE function lets see the difference.

What is the use of new TRIM function?
It Removes the space character char(32) or other specified characters from the start or end of a string.

Is SQL Server 2017 support Python?

Saturday, 11 November 2017

Top 100+ Machine Learning Interview Questions Answers PDF

What is the definition of learning from experience for a computer program?
A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P, if its performance at tasks in T, as measured by P, improves with experience E.

Explain what is Machine learning?
Machine learning is the field of study that gives computers the avility to learn without being explicitly programmed.
The acquisition of knowledge or skills through study or experience by a machine.
The ability for machines to learn without being explicitly programmed.

What are different types of learning?

  • Supervised learning

  • Unsupervised learning

  • Semisupervised learning

  • Reinforcement learning

  • Transduction
  • Learning to Learn
What are the differences between artificial intelligence, machine learning and deep learning?
Artificial Intelligence: artificial intelligence. As the name implies, it means to produce intelligence in artificial ways, in other words, using computers.

Machine Learning: This is a sub-topic of AI. As learning is one of the many functionalities of an intelligent system, machine learning is one of the many functionalities in an AI.
Deep learning: Deep learning is the specific sub-field in machine learning involving making very large and deep (i.e. many layers of neurons) neural networks to solve specific problems. It is the current “model of choice” for many machine learning applications.

What are some popular algorithms of Machine Learning?
Decision Trees
Neural Networks (back propagation)
Probabilistic networks
Nearest Neighbor
Support vector machines(SVM)

What are the three most important components of every machine learning algorithm?
Representation: How to represent knowledge. Examples include decision trees, sets of rules, instances, graphical models, neural networks, support vector machines, model ensembles and others.
Evaluation: The way to evaluate candidate programs (hypotheses). Examples include accuracy, prediction and recall, squared error, likelihood, posterior probability, cost, margin, entropy k-L divergence and others.
Optimization: The way candidate programs are generated known as the search process. For example combinatorial optimization, convex optimization, constrained optimization.

Explain Supervised learing?
In unsupervised learning we only have xi values, and also have explicit target labels.

Explain Unsupervised learing?
In unsupervised learning we only have xi values, but no explicit target labels.

Difference between Supervised and Unsupervised learning?

What type of algorithm used in Supervised and Unsupervised learning?

Explain classification?
In machine learning, classification is the problem of identifying to which of a set of categories (sub-populations) a new observation belongs, on the basis of a training set of data containing observations (or instances) whose category membership is known.

What is reinforcement Learning?
The goal is to develop a system (agent) that improves its performance based on interactions with the environment. Since the information about the current state of the environment typically also includes a so-called reward signal, we can think of reinforcement learning as a field related to supervised learning. However, in reinforcement learning this feedback is not the correct ground truth label or value, but a measure of how well the action was measured by a reward function. Through the interaction with the environment, an agent can then use reinforcement learning to learn a series of actions that maximizes this reward via an exploratory trial-and-error approach or deliberative planning. A popular example of reinforcement learning is a chess engine.

Describe the relationship between all types of machine learning and particularly the application of unsupervised.
In supervised learning, we know the right answer beforehand when we train our model, and in reinforcement learning, we define a measure of reward for particular actions by the agent. In unsupervised learning, however, we are dealing with unlabeled data or data of unknown structure. Using unsupervised learning techniques, we are able to explore the structure of our data to extract meaningful information without the guidance of a known outcome variable or reward function.

What do you understand by Cost Function in supervised learning problem? How it help you?
Cost function takes an average difference of all the results of the hypothesis with inputs from x's and the actual output y's. and help to figure best straight line to our data.

What is a support vector machine?
Maximize the minimum distance of all errors.
The dish is good by itself but to enhance the dish, you put the most amount of salt in a dish without it tasting too salty

What do we call a learning problem, if the target variable is continuous?
When the target variable that we're trying to predict is continuous, the learning problem is also called a regression problem.

What do we call a learning problem, if the target variable can take on only a small number of values?
When y can take on only a small number of discrete values, the learning problem is also called a classification problem.

Explain classifiers?

What do you understand by hypothesis space?
It is a set of legal hypothesis.

How do we measure the accuracy of a hypothesis function?
We measure the accuracy by using a cost function, usually denoted by J.

Describe variance and bias in what they measure?
Variance measures the consistency (or variability) of the model prediction for a particular sample instance if we would retrain the model multiple times, for example, on different subsets of the training dataset. We can say that the model is sensitive to the randomness in the training data. In contrast, bias measures how far off the predictions are from the correct values in general if we rebuild the model multiple times on different training datasets, bias is the measure of the systematic error that is not due to randomness.

Describe the benefits of regularization?
One way of finding a good bias-variance tradeoff is to tune the complexity of the model via regularization. Regularization is a very useful method to handle collinearity (high correlation among features), filter out noise from data, and eventually prevent overfitting. The concept behind regularization is to introduce additional information (bias) to penalize extreme parameter weights.

Explain Random forest?
Random forest is a collection of trees, hence the name 'forest'! Each tree is built from a sample of the data. The output of a RF is the model of the classes (for classification) or the mean prediction (for regression) of the individual trees.

What are training algorithms in Machine learning?
Training algorithms gives a model h with Solution Space S and a training set {X,Y}, a learning algorithm finds the solution that minimizes the cost function J(S)

Explain Training and Testing phase in Machine learning?

Explain Local minima?
The smallest value of the function. But it might not be the only one.

What is multivariate linear regression?
Linear regression with multiple variables.

How can we speed up gradient descent?
We can speed up gradient descent by having each of our input values in roughly the same range.

What is the decision boundary given a logistic function?
The decision boundary is the line that separates the area where y = 0 and where y = 1. It is created by our hypothesis function.

What is underfitting? p
Underfitting, or high bias, is when the form of our hypothesis function h maps poorly to the trend of the data.

What usually causes underfitting?
It is usually caused by a function that is too simple or uses too few features.

What is overfitting? p
Overfitting, or high variance, is caused by a hypothesis function that fits the available data but does not generalize well to predict new data.

What usually causes overfitting?
It is usually caused by a complicated function that creates a lot of unnecessary curves and angles unrelated to the data.

How can we avoid overfitting?
Stop growing when data split is no more statistically significant OR grow tree & post-prune.

What is features scaling?
Feature scaling is a method used to standardize the range of independent variables or features of data. In data processing, it is also known as data normalization and is generally performed during the data preprocessing step.

What are the advantages of data normalization?
Few advantages of normalizing the data are as follows:
1. It makes your training faster.
2. It prevents you from getting stuck in local optima.
3. It gives you a better error surface shape.
4. Wweight decay and bayes optimization can be done more conveniently.

What range is used for feature scaling

What is the formula for feature scaling?

What two algorithms does features scaling help with?
K-means and SVM RBF Kernal

What two algorithms does features scaling NOT help with?
Linear regression and decision trees

What do you understand by clustering?
Clustering means grouping of data or dividing a large data set into smaller data sets of some similarity.

What is a good clustering algorithm?

In a basic sense, what are neurons?
Neurons are basically computational units that take inputs, called dendrites, as electrical inputs, called "spikes", that are channeled to outputs , called axons.

What is a neural network?
Takes an input layer -> hidden layer of logistic regression -> outputs of the hidden layer are binary that go to the output layer
is that a house cat? input layer is whiskers, fur, paws, large. Hidden layer finds that cats are small (so the output of the hidden layer is 1, 1, 1 ,0). Because not all features (outputs) from the hidden layers are true, it's not a house cat.

What is Regression Analysis?
We are given a number of predictor (explanatory) variables and a continuous response variable (outcome), and we try to find a relationship between those variables that allows us to predict an outcome.

What are the dendrites in the model of neural networks?
In our model, our dendrites are like the input features.

What are the axons in the model of neural networks?
In our model, the axons are the results of our hypothesis function.

What is the bias unit of a neural network?
The input node x0 is sometimes called the "bias unit." It is always equal to 1.

What are the weights of a neural network?
Using the logistic function, our "theta" parameters are sometimes called "weights".

What is the activation function of a neural network?
The logistic function (as in classification) is also called a sigmoid (logistic) activation function.

How do we label the hidden layers of a neural network?
We label these intermediate or hidden layer nodes. The nodes are also called activation units.

What is the kernal method?
When you can't use logistical regression because there isn't a clear delineation between the two groups, you need to draw a curved line. Multiply x & y to separate groups on a 3d plane.
monkey in the middle. If there are two people on either side of the person in the middle, how do you draw a straight line to separate the two groups (e.g. logistical regression)? You can't. You have to draw a curved line.

What's the motivation for the kernel trick?
To solve a nonlinear problem using an SVM, we transform the training data onto a higher dimensional feature space via a mapping function and train a linear SVM model to classify the data in this new feature space. Then we can use the same mapping function. to transform new, unseen data to classify it using the linear SVM model.
However, one problem with this mapping approach is that the construction of the new features is computationally very expensive, especially if we are dealing with high-dimensional data. This is where the so-called kernel trick comes into play

Give the setup of using a neural network.
• Pick a network architecture.
• Choose the layout of your neural network.
• Number of input units; dimension of features x i.
• Number of output units; number of classes.
• Number of hidden units per layer; usually more the better.

How does one train a neural network?
1. Randomly initialize the weights.
2. Implement forward propagation.
3. Implement the cost function.
4. Implement backpropagation.
5. Use gradient checking to confirm that your backpropagation works.
6. Use gradient descent to minimize the cost function with the weights in theta.

How can we break down our decision process deciding what to do next? 
• Getting more training examples: Fixes high variance.
• Trying smaller sets of features: Fixes high variance.
• Adding features: Fixes high bias.
• Adding polynomial features: Fixes high bias.
• Decreasing lambda: Fixes high bias.
• Increasing lambda: Fixes high variance.

What issue poses a neural network with fewer parameters?
A neural network with fewer parameters is prone to underfitting.

What issue poses a neural network with more parameters?
A large neural network with more parameters is prone to overfitting.

What is the relationship between the degree of the polynomial d and the underfitting or overfitting of our hypothesis?
• High bias (underfitting): both J train(Θ) and J CV(Θ) will be high. Also, J CV(Θ) is approximately equal to J train(Θ).
• High variance (overfitting): J train(Θ) will be low and J CV(Θ) will be much greater than J train(Θ).

Describe Logistic Regression vs SVM.
In practical classification tasks, linear logistic regression and linear SVMs often yield very similar results. Logistic regression tries to maximize the conditional likelihoods of the training data, which makes it more prone to outliers than SVMs. The SVMs mostly care about the points that are closest to the decision boundary (support vectors). On the other hand, logistic regression has the advantage that it is a simpler model that can be implemented more easily. Furthermore, logistic regression models can be easily updated, which is attractive when working with streaming data.

Give an overview of the decision tree process.
We start at the tree root and split the data on the feature that results in the largest information gain (IG). In an iterative process, we can then repeat this splitting procedure at each child node until the leaves are pure. This means that the samples at each node all belong to the same class.

Describe parametric vs nonparametric models?
Machine learning algorithms can be grouped into parametric and nonparametric models. Using parametric models, we estimate parameters from the training dataset to learn a function that can classify new data points without requiring the original training dataset anymore. Typical examples of parametric models are the perceptron, logistic regression, and the linear SVM. In contrast, nonparametric models can't be characterized by a fixed set of parameters, and the number of parameters grows with the training data. Two examples of nonparametric models that we have seen so far are the decision tree classifier/random forest and the kernel SVM.

What is feature extraction?
A method to transform or project the data onto a new feature space. In the context of dimensionality reduction, feature extraction can be understood as an approach to data compression with the goal of maintaining most of the relevant information.

Explain PCA in a nutshell.
It aims to find the directions of maximum variance in high-dimensional data and projects it onto a new subspace with equal or fewer dimensions that the original one. The orthogonal axes (principal components) of the new subspace can be interpreted as the directions of maximum variance given the constraint that the new feature axes are orthogonal to each other

What is Exploratory Data Analysis?
(EDA) is an important and recommended first step prior to the training of a machine learning model. For example, it may help us to visually detect the presence of outliers, the distribution of the data, and the relationships between features.

What is word stemming?
The process of transforming a word into its root form that allows us to map related words to the same stem

What is OLS?
Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method is to estimate the parameters of the regression line that minimizes the sum of the squared vertical distances (residuals or errors) to the sample points.

What are residual plots?
Since our model uses multiple explanatory variables, we can't visualize the linear regression line (or hyperplane to be precise) in a two-dimensional plot, but we can plot the residuals (the differences or vertical distances between the actual and predicted values) versus the predicted values to diagnose our regression model. Those residual plots are a commonly used graphical analysis for diagnosing regression models to detect non-linearity and outliers, and to check if the errors are randomly distributed.

What is the elbow method?
A graphical technique to estimate the optimal number of clusters k for a given task. Intuitively, we can say that, if k increases, the distortion (within-cluster SSE) will decrease. This is because the samples will be closer to the centroids they are assigned to. The idea behind the elbow method is to identify the value of k where the distortion begins to increase most rapidly,

The two main approaches to hierarchical clustering are?
Agglomerative and divisive hierarchical clustering

What is Deep learning?
It can be understood as a set of algorithms that were developed to train artificial neural networks with many layers most efficiently.

What does the feedforward in feedforward artificial neural network mean?
Feedforward refers to the fact that each layer serves as the input to the next layer without loops, in contrast to recurrent neural networks for example.

What is gradient checking?
It is essentially a comparison between our analytical gradients in the network and numerical gradients, where a numerically approximated gradient =( J(w + epsilon) - J(w) ) / epsilon, for example.

What are Recurrent Neural Networks?
Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) can be thought of as feedforward neural networks with feedback loops or backpropagation through time. In RNNs, the neurons only fire for a limited amount of time before they are (temporarily) deactivated. In turn, these neurons activate other neurons that fire at a later point in time. Basically, we can think of recurrent neural networks as MLPs with an additional time variable. The time component and dynamic structure allows the network to use not only the current inputs but also the inputs that it encountered earlier.