Monday, 15 February 2016

Top 50 AWS Interview Questions Answers for Fresher and Experienced PDF Free Download

Hey guys this time we coming with latest technology going popular these days, if you want to make career in AWS then be happy because it has great future. This set is for both fresher and experienced developers.


1). Explain what is AWS(Amazon Web Service)?
AWS stands for Amazon Web Service; it is a collection of remote computing services also known as cloud computing platform.  This new realm of cloud computing is also known as IaaS or Infrastructure as a Service.

2). Explain what are the key components of AWS( Amazon Web Service )?
The key components of AWS are :-
  • Route 53: A DNS web service
  • Simple E-mail Service: It allows sending e-mail using RESTFUL API call or via regular SMTP
  • Identity and Access Management: It provides enhanced security and identity management for your AWS account
  • Simple Storage Device or (S3): It is a storage device and the most widely used AWS service
  • Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2): It provides on-demand computing resources for hosting applications. It is very useful in case of unpredictable workloads
  • Elastic Block Store (EBS): It provides persistent storage volumes that attach to EC2 to allow you to persist data past the lifespan of a single EC2
  • CloudWatch: To monitor AWS resources, It allows administrators to view and collect key Also, one can set a notification alarm in case of trouble.
3). Explain what is IAM service?
AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) is a web service that helps you securely control access to AWS resources for your users. You use IAM to control who can use your AWS resources (authentication) and what resources they can use and in what ways (authorization).

4). What is AWS Certificate Manager?
AWS Certificate Manager (ACM) handles the complexity of provisioning, deploying, and managing certificates provided by ACM (ACM Certificates) for your AWS-based websites and applications. You use ACM to request and manage the certificate and then use other AWS services to provision the ACM Certificate for your website or application. As shown by the following illustration, ACM Certificates are currently available for use with only Elastic Load Balancing and Amazon CloudFront. You cannot use ACM Certificates outside of AWS.

5). Explain what is S3?
S3 stands for Simple Storage Service. You can use S3 interface to store and retrieve any amount of data, at any time and from anywhere on the web.  Also we can host a website in Amazon S3. most of the companies storing the documents, images and other files to S3. For S3, the payment model is “pay as you go”.

6). Explain what is AMI ( Amazon Machine Image )?
It’s a template that provides the information (an operating system, an application server and applications) required to launch an instance, which is a copy of the AMI running as a virtual server in the cloud.  You can launch instances from as many different AMIs as you need.

7). Mention what is the relation between an instance and AMI?
From a single AMI, you can launch multiple types of instances.  An instance type defines the hardware of the host computer used for your instance. Each instance type provides different compute and memory capabilities.  Once you launch an instance, it looks like a traditional host, and we can interact with it as we would with any computer.

8). Explain what is Redshift?
Redshift is a fast, fully managed, petabyte-scale data warehouse service that makes it simple and cost-effective to efficiently analyze all your data using your existing business intelligence tools.

9). What Is Amazon EC2?
Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) provides scalable computing capacity in the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud. Using Amazon EC2 eliminates your need to invest in hardware up front, so you can develop and deploy applications faster. You can use Amazon EC2 to launch as many or as few virtual servers as you need, configure security and networking, and manage storage. Amazon EC2 enables you to scale up or down to handle changes in requirements or spikes in popularity, reducing your need to forecast traffic.

10). Explain what Is Amazon EC2 instance?
An EC2 instance is a virtual server in Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) for running applications on the Amazon Web Services (AWS) infrastructure.

11). Exmplain some features of Amazon EC2?
Amazon EC2 provides the following features:
  • Virtual computing environments, known as instances
  • Preconfigured templates for your instances, known as Amazon Machine Images (AMIs), that package the bits you need for your server (including the operating system and additional software)
  • Various configurations of CPU, memory, storage, and networking capacity for your instances, known as instance types
  • Secure login information for your instances using key pairs (AWS stores the public key, and you store the private key in a secure place)
  • Storage volumes for temporary data that's deleted when you stop or terminate your instance, known as instance store volumes
  • Persistent storage volumes for your data using Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS), known as Amazon EBS volumes
  • Multiple physical locations for your resources, such as instances and Amazon EBS volumes, known as regions and Availability Zones
  • A firewall that enables you to specify the protocols, ports, and source IP ranges that can reach your instances using security groups
  • Static IP addresses for dynamic cloud computing, known as Elastic IP addresses
12). Mention what are the differences between Amazon S3 and EC2 ?
S3: Amazon S3 is just a storage service, typically used to store large binary files. Amazon also has other storage and database services, like RDS for relational databases and DynamoDB for NoSQL.

EC2: An EC2 instance is like a remote computer running Windows or Linux and on which you can install whatever software you want, including a Web server running PHP code and a database server.

13). How many buckets can you create in AWS by default?
By default, you can create upto 100 buckets in each of your AWS accounts.

14). Explain what is T2 instances?
T2 instances are designed to provide moderate baseline performance and the capability to burst to significantly higher performance as required by your workload.

15). Explain what is C4 instances?
C4 instances are ideal for compute-bound applications that benefit from high performance processors.

16). Explain how the buffer is used in Amazon web services?
The buffer is used to make the system more robust to manage traffic or load by synchronizing different component.  Usually, components receive and process the requests in an unbalanced way, With the help of buffer, the components will be balanced and will work at the same speed to provide faster services.

17). Explain what is DynamoDB?
Amazon DynamoDB is a fully managed NoSQL database service that provides fast and predictable performance with seamless scalability. You can use Amazon DynamoDB to create a database table that can store and retrieve any amount of data, and serve any level of request traffic. Amazon DynamoDB automatically spreads the data and traffic for the table over a sufficient number of servers to handle the request capacity specified by the customer and the amount of data stored, while maintaining consistent and fast performance.

18). Explain what is ElastiCache?
ElastiCache is a web service that makes it easy to set up, manage, and scale distributed in-memory cache environments in the cloud.

19). What is the AWS Key Management Service?
The AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) is a managed service that makes it easy for you to create and control the encryption keys used to encrypt your data.

20). What is AWS WAF? What are the  potential benefits of using WAF?
AWS WAF is a web application firewall that lets you monitor the HTTP and HTTPS requests that are forwarded to Amazon CloudFront and lets you control access to your content. Based on conditions that you specify, such as the IP addresses that requests originate from or the values of query strings, CloudFront responds to requests either with the requested content or with an HTTP 403 status code (Forbidden). You can also configure CloudFront to return a custom error page when a request is blocked.
Benefits of using WAF:
  • Additional protection against web attacks using conditions that you specify. You can define conditions by using characteristics of web requests such as the IP address that the requests originate from, the values in headers, strings that appear in the requests, and the presence of malicious SQL code in the request, which is known as SQL injection.
  • Rules that you can reuse for multiple web applications
  • Real-time metrics and sampled web requests
  • Automated administration using the AWS WAF API

21). What is Amazon EMR?
Amazon Elastic MapReduce (Amazon EMR) is a managed cluster platform that simplifies running big data frameworks, such as Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark, on AWS to process and analyze vast amounts of data. By using these frameworks and related open-source projects, such as Apache Hive and Apache Pig, you can process data for analytics purposes and business intelligence workloads. Additionally, you can use Amazon EMR to transform and move large amounts of data into and out of other AWS data stores and databases, such as Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) and Amazon DynamoDB.

22). What is AWS Data Pipeline? and what are the components of AWS Data Pipeline?
AWS Data Pipeline is a web service that you can use to automate the movement and transformation of data. With AWS Data Pipeline, you can define data-driven workflows, so that tasks can be dependent on the successful completion of previous tasks.

The following components of AWS Data Pipeline work together to manage your data:

  • A pipeline definition specifies the business logic of your data management. For more information, see Pipeline Definition File Syntax.
  • A pipeline schedules and runs tasks. You upload your pipeline definition to the pipeline, and then activate the pipeline. You can edit the pipeline definition for a running pipeline and activate the pipeline again for it to take effect. You can deactivate the pipeline, modify a data source, and then activate the pipeline again. When you are finished with your pipeline, you can delete it.
  • Task Runner polls for tasks and then performs those tasks. For example, Task Runner could copy log files to Amazon S3 and launch Amazon EMR clusters. Task Runner is installed and runs automatically on resources created by your pipeline definitions. You can write a custom task runner application, or you can use the Task Runner application that is provided by AWS Data Pipeline. For more information, see Task Runners.
23). What is Amazon Kinesis Firehose?
Amazon Kinesis Firehose is a fully managed service for delivering real-time streaming data to destinations such as Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) and Amazon Redshift.

24). What Is Amazon CloudSearch and its features?
Amazon CloudSearch is a fully managed service in the cloud that makes it easy to set up, manage, and scale a search solution for your website or application.
You can use Amazon CloudSearch to index and search both structured data and plain text. Amazon CloudSearch features:

  • Full text search with language-specific text processing
  • Boolean search
  • Prefix searches
  • Range searches
  • Term boosting
  • Faceting
  • Highlighting
  • Autocomplete Suggestions
25). Explain what is Regions and Endpoints in AWS?
To reduce data latency in your applications, most Amazon Web Services products allow you to select a regional endpoint to make your requests. An endpoint is a URL that is the entry point for a web service. For example, is an entry point for the Amazon DynamoDB service.
Some services, such as IAM, do not support regions; their endpoints therefore do not include a region. A few services, such as Amazon EC2, let you specify an endpoint that does not include a specific region, for example, In that case, AWS routes the endpoint to us-east-1.

26). How to find your regions and Availability Zones using the Amazon EC2 CLI?
Use the ec2-describe-regions command as follows to describe your regions.
PROMPT> ec2-describe-regions
REGION us-east-1
REGION  ap-northeast-1
REGION  ap-southeast-1

27). What is Amazon AppStream and advantage of using AppStreaming?
Amazon AppStream is an application streaming service that lets you stream your existing resource-intensive applications from the cloud without code modifications.

Advantages of Streaming Your Application
Interactively streaming your application from the cloud provides several benefits:
  • Remove Device Constraints – You can leverage the compute power of AWS to deliver experiences that wouldn't normally be possible due to the GPU, CPU, memory or physical storage constraints of local devices.
  • Support Multiple Platforms – You can write your application once and stream it to multiple device platforms. To support a new device, just write a small client to connect to your streaming application.
  • Fast and Easy Updates – Because your streaming application is centrally managed by Amazon AppStream, updating your application is as simple as providing a new version of your streaming application to Amazon AppStream. You can immediately upgrade all of your customers without any action on their part.
  • Instant On – Streaming your application with Amazon AppStream lets your customers start using your application or game immediately, without the delays associated with large file downloads and time-consuming installations.
  • Improve Security – Unlike traditional boxed software and digital downloads, where your application is available for theft or reverse engineering, Amazon AppStream stores your streaming application binary securely in AWS datacenters.
  • Automatic Scaling – You can use Amazon AppStream to specify capacity needs, and then the service automatically scales your streamed application and connects customers’ devices to it.

28). Which AWS responsible for managed email and calendaring?
WorkMail is a managed email and calendaring service with strong security controls and support for existing desktop and mobile email clients. You can access their email, contacts, and calendars wherever you use Microsoft Outlook, your browser, or your iOS and Android mobile devices. You can integrate Amazon WorkMail with your existing corporate directory and control both the keys that encrypt your data and the location where your data is stored.

29). What are the benefits of EBS vs. instance-store?
  • EBS backed instances can be set so that they cannot be (accidentally) terminated through the API.
  • EBS backed instances can be stopped when you're not using them and resumed when you need them again (like pausing a Virtual PC), at least with my usage patterns saving much more money than I spend on a few dozen GB of EBS storage.
  • EBS backed instances don't lose their instance storage when they crash (not a requirement for all users, but makes recovery much faster)
  • You can dynamically resize EBS instance storage.
  • You can transfer the EBS instance storage to a brand new instance (useful if the hardware at Amazon you were running on gets flaky or dies, which does happen from time to time)
  • It is faster to launch an EBS backed instance because the image does not have to be fetched from S3.
30). How you will find out the instance id from within an ec2 machine?
wget -q -O - http://instance-data/latest/meta-data/instance-id

If you need programatic access to the instance ID from within a script
die() { status=$1; shift; echo "FATAL: $*"; exit $status; }
EC2_INSTANCE_ID="`wget -q -O - http://instance-data/latest/meta-data/instance-id || die \"wget instance-id has failed: $?\"`"

31). How do you pass custom environment variable on Amazon Elastic Beanstalk (AWS EBS)?
As a heads up to anyone who uses the .ebextensions/*.config way: nowadays you can add, edit and remove environment variables in the Elastic Beanstalk web interface.

The variables are under Configuration → Software Configuration:

32). Is it possible to use AWS as a web host? What are the way of using AWS as a web host? 
Yes it is completely possible to host websites on AWS in 2 ways:
  1.  Easy - S3 (Simple Storage Solution) is a bucket storage solution that lets you serve static content e.g. images but has recently been upgraded so you can use it to host flat .html files and your site will get served by a default Apache installation with very little configuration on your part (but also little control).
  2. Trickier - You can use EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud) and create a virtual Linux instance then install Apache/NGinx (or whatever) on that to give you complete control over serving whatever/however you want. You use SecurityGroups to enable/disable ports for individual machines or groups of them.

33). How step you follow to make 10,000 files as public in S3?
I will generate a bucket policy which gives access to all the files in the bucket. The bucket policy can be added to a bucket through AWS console.
    "Id": "...",
    "Statement": [ {
        "Sid": "...",
        "Action": [
        "Effect": "Allow",
        "Resource": "arn:aws:s3:::bucket/*",
        "Principal": {
            "AWS": [ "*" ]
    } ]

34). How do you see how much disk space is using by S3 bucket?
s3cmd can show you this by running s3cmd du, optionally passing the bucket name as an argument.

35). Explain what happens when I reboot an EC2 instance?
Rebooting an instance is like rebooting a PC. The hard disk isn't affected. You don't return to the image's original state, but the contents of the hard disks are those before the reboot.
Rebooting isn't associated with billing. Billing starts when you instantiate an image and stops when you terminate it. Rebooting in between hasn't any effect.

36). Write down the command you will use to copy all files from one S3 bucket to another with s3cmd?
s3cmd sync s3://from/this/bucket/ s3://to/this/bucket/

37). How you will change the root EBS device of my amazon EC2 instance?

  • Stop the instance.
  • Detach the root EBS volume.
  • Attach the alternate EBS volume (as the root e.g. /dev/sda1)
  • Start the instance.
  • This presupposes that your alternate EBS volume is bootable, of course - it has to contain the bootable OS image.

38). What is the difference between Amazon SNS and Amazon SQS?

  • Amazon SNS allows applications to send time-critical messages to multiple subscribers through a “push” mechanism, eliminating the need to periodically check or “poll” for updates.
  • Amazon SQS is a message queue service used by distributed applications to exchange messages through a polling model, and can be used to decouple sending and receiving components—without requiring each component to be concurrently available.

39). How many objects you can put in a S3 bucket? is there a limit to the number of objects I can put in an S3 bucket?
Write, read, and delete objects containing from 1 byte to 5 terabytes of data each. The number of objects you can store is unlimited.

40). How to delete files recursively from an S3 bucket?
aws s3 rm --recursive s3://your_bucket_name/foo/

Or delete everything under the bucket:
aws s3 rm --recursive s3://your_bucket_name

If what you want is to actually delete the bucket, there is one-step shortcut:
aws s3 rb --force s3://your_bucket_name

41). How to access/ping a server located on AWS?
Using UI:
In your security group:

    • Click the inbound tab
    • Create a custom ICMP rule
    • Select echo request
    • Use range for everyone or lock it down to specific IPs
    • Apply the changes
    • and you'll be able to ping.
Using cmd: To do this on the command line you can run:
    • ec2-authorize <group> -P icmp -t -1:-1 -s

42). What is the maximum length of a file-name in S3?
Names are the object keys. The name for a key is a sequence of Unicode characters whose UTF-8 encoding is at most 1024 bytes long.
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